Gregory Bateson( Anglo-American biologist, anthropologist, philosopher)
Comments for Gregory Bateson
Biography Gregory Bateson
Bateson (Bateson), Gregory (9.5.1904, Cambridge, England - 1981, Berkeley, California, USA) - Anglo-American biologist, anthropologist, philosopher. Secondary education in a charity school (1917-1921), then, from 1922. in 1926, took a course in college Sv. John (BA, 1925; MA, 1930). Since 1926, Mr.. by 1928. worked under the guidance of a. Wilkins, in 1928. taught linguistics at Sydney, Australia, from 1931. by 1937. he - a member of the College Board SW. John. At the same time participated in numerous ethnographic expeditions: in New Britain (1927-1928), to New Guinea (1929-1931, 1931-1933, 1939) and Bali (1936-1938), here - along with Margaret Mead, with which married since 1936, Mr.. to 1950
One of the first to use systematic filming in the field of ethnographic studies. In 1940. moved to the U.S., . where she teaches: read guest lectures at the New School for Social Research (1946), . Harvard University (1948), . in the College of Medicine, University of California (1948), . at this time begin to work on the problem of schizophrenia ( 'Toward a theory of chizophrenia', . 'Behav,
. Sci. ', 1956, vol 1, (et al)). Since 1962. by 1964. he - the director of research at the Institute of Communications Research (ETHOL), board member of the Institute of Research in mental r. Palo Alto, a member of the Royal Institute interkulturalnyh Research and the American Anthropological Society.
As a theorist was formed under the influence of ideas B. Russell and L. von Bertalanffy, a supporter of psychological direction 'new communications', in which man is understood as' playing with his body in general, the orchestra, considered the biosphere from the standpoint of quantum physics.
. His ideas have been crucial to the hypotheses 'double bond' ( 'double bind', cm
. below), . developed within the group to study schizophrenia Palo Alto, California: communication in the family of the schizophrenic is carried on two contradictory levels, . among whom he is forced to choose, . and each choice sanctioned negative ( 'A note on the double bind', . 'Family Process', . 1962, . 2, . p,
. 154-161 (Joint. with Jackson DD, Haby J., Weakland JH)).
Defender talk about the need ecological approach to psychology and psychotherapy. Author psychotherapeutic techniques paradoxical intervention.
The theory of the double bond (double-bind theory) - a conceptual model proposed by Mr.. Bateson in 1956. and developed by the research group of the Institute of mental Studies,. Palo Alto, which explains the emergence and development of communication features of schizophrenia in their families (Bateson G. et al. 'Toward a theory of schizophrenia', 'Behav. Sci. ', 1956, V. 1). Since, . that any communication can be carried out in various ways and at different levels (the level of verbal text, . level of physical expression, etc.), . then there is the possibility of conflict between those coming from the one subject of multilevel messages,
. Under normal circumstances, this contradiction is tracked communicating, and they have a basic opportunity to reach metauroven and discuss the rules of their communications. But the families of schizophrenics appeal to metaurovnyu prohibited and negatively sanctioned. Bateson gives an example. Mother while visiting her son, a schizophrenic in the hospital in response to his joy at first is - on nonverbal level, facial expressions and gestures - a negative attitude toward it, as it unpleasant to be with him. But when he is well enough to react to this mood of disillusionment and decline, it starts - at the level of verbal reactions - to blame him for what he wants to help physicians in their healing and remains constrained and lacking emotion. In this case all possible reproaches her son about her own insincerity will be perceived by it as a manifestation of his mental disability. Thus, in respect of the same object or phenomenon is the use of different, conflicting, systems of evaluation ( 'dual link'), which are to the same policy. Inability of the child to understand and treat the causes of this inconsistency, the authors believe that care in illness, in which the best strategy is 'devalvirovanie' own perception of products, which is characteristic of schizophrenia.