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Ruth Fulton Benedict (Benedict Ruth Fulton)

( American cultural anthropology)

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Biography Ruth Fulton Benedict (Benedict Ruth Fulton)
photo Ruth Fulton Benedict (Benedict Ruth Fulton)
(1887-1948)-American. cultural anthropology, seen (along with Kardiner, Linton, Sapir, M. Mead and Dubois), the representative etnopsihol. direction ( 'culture and identity') in amer. Anthropology. In 1921-23 B. studying under Boas at Columbia University are cultural anthropology. In 1923, protects the Doctor. dis. 'Representations of Amer. Indians of the guardian spirits'. From 1923 until his death B. taught at Columbia University, those which in 1936 changed the position of dean of Boas in anthropology department. In 1947 B. elected President of Amer. anthropological. Association. For Multi base. months before his death became a professor at Columbia University is the.
The first phase of anthropological. of B. associated with field studies on the reservation severoamer. Indians, on cut-to-there ryh in 1935 she published a monograph 'mythology zunya'. Obtained during field work materials often used by B. in her work in early. 30-ies. Etnopsihol. recognize the primary focus in every culture, identity and characteristics of mental (psychological. determinism). BA, as well as others. researchers of this trend, widely used Freud's concept. In the article 'Configurations of Culture' (1923), she took the Nietzschean differentiation cultures on the 'Apollonian' and 'Dionysian' types and claimed, . that cross-cultural differences are explained primarily by differences in individual psychology, . because of culture - this' individual psychology, . reflected on the big screen ',
. In the article 'Anthropology and the abnormal' (1934) BA, developing the ideas of Freud, considered the cultural decomp. peoples as a specific manifestation of their inherent psychopathology. In his chapter. obscheteor. Labor 'cultural model' (1935) B. went beyond psychology, in an attempt to synthesize anthropological., Sociology. and psychological. approaches to the phenomenon of culture. She championed the cultural relativist principle, according to-rum every phenomenon of culture can be adequately understood only in the general context of the culture. Emphasizing the uniqueness of each culture, B. At the same time admitted that between about-tion and the individual is a close relationship, and personality should be studied in the system this relationship. The concept of cultural relativism has been used it to criticize the fascist ideas in the works of the early. 40-ies. During the war, on orders from Military Intelligence Service of the U.S. B. concentrated on Japanese. th. psychology, to create a unique guide to amer. Military and Civil. officials after the occupation of Japan. B. widely used techniques developed by its 'distance learning culture' (analysis of scientific. and artist. lit-ry, war diaries, view Japanese. movies, interviews with living in the U.S. Japanese). B. never been to Japan and did not know Japanese. Language. On the basis of the collected materials written his famous book 'Chrysanthemum and the Sword' (1946). In it a cultural relativist position of Japan. Culture is seen as hierarchical in nature, which implies a precise knowledge of each member of the Society's place in it and its role. B. tipologiziruet Jpn. culture of shame, contrasting it with Western, primarily Amer., a culture of guilt to etich. emphasis on deities. Commandments. B. paid particular attention to Japanese. concepts of 'he' (mercy, kindness) and 'giri' (obligation), education of children in families. Despite the fact that 'Chrysanthemum and the Sword' has received a mixed review in Japan and the West (B. accused of anti-historicism, Zap. ethno-centrism, in that she drew a portrait of the Japanese, and Japan. prisoner of war), it became classical. Work abroad. Japanese studies and cultural anthropology in general, work to a swarm, has so far been treated, researchers. Students B. - M. Mead P. Metro, M. Wolfenstein - widely used and deepened developed B. technique 'distance learning culture'.

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Ruth Fulton Benedict (Benedict Ruth Fulton), photo, biography
Ruth Fulton Benedict (Benedict Ruth Fulton), photo, biography Ruth Fulton Benedict (Benedict Ruth Fulton)  American cultural anthropology, photo, biography
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