Witkin Herman( American psychologist)
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Biography Witkin Herman
(1916, New York - 1979) - American psychologist, along with RV. Gardner and J. Kagan is the founder of a new direction in psychology-based study of cognitive style of the individual.
In 1940. initiated a study of visual perception. For the first time drew attention to the fact that people in different ways can resist the damaging impact of the conflict of background characteristics on the perception of visual forms and links. In particular, found that under the influence of the surrounding visual field is changing the perception of vertical ( 'Personality through Perception: an experimental and Clinical Study', NY, 1954). These studies were based on inputs X. Aubert, who in 1861,. found that eating in the dark bow, then the luminous vertical line will appear deflected in the opposite direction ( 'effect Aubert'). Based on systematic review of these data Witkin concluded, . that the degree of dependence on the field of view appears as a special component of a wider measure of personality, . designated them as a generalized cognitive style, . which may be either dissected, . or differentiated ( 'Psychological Differentiation: Studies of Development', . Potomac, . Md., . 1974 (Dyk RB,
. et al); 'Social conformity and psychological differentiation', 'International J. O. Psychology ', 1974, 9).
On the basis of their experimental studies they proposed a series of psychodiagnostic methods for the identification of cognitive style ( 'polenezavisimost-polezavisimost'): 'Rod and Frame Test ",' Embedded Figure Test '.