Kardiner (Kardiner) Abram( The American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst)
Comments for Kardiner (Kardiner) Abram
Biography Kardiner (Kardiner) Abram
(1891-1981) - Amer. psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. Received medical. Education in New York, in 1917 he defended his Doctor. dis. of medicine at Cornell University are. In 1921-22 he studied psychoanalysis with Freud. Worked in Psihoanalitich. in-those in New York (1922-44), he taught psychiatry at Cornell. un-te (1923-29). He worked at Columbia University are (1929-61) and in 1955-61 headed psihoanalitich. Clinic. In 1961-68 - Professor. Zap Emory pc. Atlanta.
In 1922-44 TO. spent in the psychoanalytic in-those seminars on the problem of interaction between culture and identity in different societies, to-ryh attended by leading anthropologists of that time (Linton, DuBois, Benedict, Bunzel, ETC.). At cut-there of these workshops were published book 'The individual and his on-in' (1939) and 'psikhol. boundaries of the Society '(1945), in to-ryh developed a concept of' basic personality types' - one of the first serious attempt to apply psychoanalysis in the field of anthropology. Under the basic personality type means a series of special aptitudes and character traits, characteristic of most individuals of any of the Society. Each culture has its particular type of personality. Basic personality structure formed under the influence of the dominant culture in the methods of education ( 'primary institutions'), . determining the set of individuals with regard to such important aspects of life, . sexuality, . aggression, . Family Organization, . interaction with other people, etc.,
. With others. hand, the basic structure of personality due to the action 'projective systems' is reflected in religion, folklore and art ( 'secondary institutions'). 'Integrative the system', . included in the basic structure of personality, . ensure the unity and stability of culture, . coherence of its constituent institutions ( 'primary' and 'secondary'), . congeniality personality so natural and cultural conditions, . K-ryh it is formed and functioning,
. The concept of basic personality types is not in itself was something new, since continued a long tradition of studying th. nature. Novelty differed designed to. methodology to identify the basic type of personality: it is based on the principles of psychodynamics have been developed in the works of Freud, but to. some have modified their placing in the center of his approach, the concept of adaptation. The structure of personality was seen as a result of adaptation to the conditions of individual, . K-ryh he was born and raised; identity experiences of early childhood, . determined by the dominant in the island of methods of education, . finds further expression in general terms the nature, . characteristic of the individuals on the islands (the base type of personality), . as well as the peculiarities of religion, . mythology etc.,
. Thus, it becomes possible to identify basic personality structure using psihodinamich. analysis of primary and secondary institutions, for such an analysis was used raznoobr. withdrawals. material (etnogr. records, biographies, cut-you projective tests).
Application of this methodology was demonstrated for several 'primitive' cultures (Comanches markiztsy, Tana, alortsy, etc.). In 1946-51 TO. tested this methodology on the material sovr. amer. ob-va, the subject of study was basic personality type amer. Negro. Res-you published in the book 'The stigma of oppression' (1951), written with L. Ouvsi, it identified two OCH. features characteristic of the individual amer. black: low self-esteem and aggressiveness. These two psikhol. 'constellation', k-rye are closely related to each other and form a 'core' character, the dominant among the black population in the USA, due both to cut-t adapt to the conditions of blacks living in America, ie. conditions of injustice, oppression and racial discrimination. In the same book to. reviewed and analyzed decomp. transformation, . place with aggressive because of its displacement (passive, . flattery, . reduction of the affective capacity, . pent-up rage, . hate, . fear, . pliability, . irritability, . boldness, etc.), analysis of patterns of aggressiveness had ODA,
. theor. value.
The concept of basic personality types is OCH. place in scientific pursuits to. The peak of its popularity fell to 40-s., Then interest in it virtually dried up. Critics of this concept appealed Chapter. arr. to the fact that it can not be used to analyze sovr. on-in with a complex social structure. The concept of 'basic personality' has been supplanted by other concepts: 'th. nature '(M. Meade), 'modal personality' (K. Dubois), 'a status identity' (P. Linton). Among other topics of research to. - Traumatic. neurosis among the participants of the war, the ratio of sexuality and morality, etc.