Wilhelm Reich( Australian psychologist and psychiatrist)
Comments for Wilhelm Reich
Biography Wilhelm Reich
(1897-1957) - Austria. psychologist and a psychiatrist. He graduated from medical. Dept., Ven. Zap. Attitudes P. lifetime varies greatly, so it creative. activity is divided into four periods, according to his stay in Austria, Germany, Norway and the U.S..
In 1920 a student was admitted to the Wen. psihoanalitich. on-in and became a practicing psychoanalyst. In 1924-30 led psihoanalitich. 'Tekhniki. (metodich.) Workshop 'and has developed his own. psikhol. system: a theory of orgasm, which became the key to all his subsequent constructions - from the theory of the sexual revolution to the theory of Cosmic. Energy. In this period, was written by his fundamental work 'The function of orgasm' (1927).
Widely known through the development on the basis of their psihoanalitich. representations of left-radical social theory, claiming a new explanation of the class struggle and proletarian revolution. Belonged to the second generation of critics of Freud in the field of psychoanalysis, speaking after Jung and Adler, and for P. characterized by rejection of 'conservatism' Classic. Freudian. Was close to Freud, Fromm and Horney, occupying an intermediate position between the Freudian and neofreydizmom.
P. broke with Freud in the treatment of sexuality: renounced his psikhol. approach in favor of somatic-naturalistic, and thus returned to the views of the preceding biologizatorskogo trends in sexology. Based on the early works of Freud P. developed his own. the concept of neurosis, TN. 'genital theory of neurosis', according to proximate cause, a swarm of neurosis is the inability to discharge sexual energy. During the same period, the Viennese was created his theory of personality and were offered 'more active and effective methods of treatment'.
Studying the social causes of neurosis induced P. interested in Marxism. He moved to Berlin, comes into germ. the communist. Party. In 1930-33 P. drawn to the analysis of it. Fascism and creates its own chapter. product of socio-polit, orientation: 'Analysis of the character' (1933), 'Social Psychology of Fascism' (1933) and a number of works, united under the general later called 'sexual revolution' (1945). These R. argued that 'nevrotich. nature ', personality, formed under conditions of suppression of sexuality, tends to blind obedience, is unable to revolt and favors the establishment of an authoritarian regime. In fascism P. saw 'diagnosis of a collective neurosis' (not only in Nazi Germany, but in Bolshevik Russia). To resolve on the islands' nevrotich. the characters' need 'liberation' of sexuality. He P. assigned center, a place in their futurologich. projects.
During this period, P. emerged as one of the first and most vliyat. representatives of the radical left Freudianism (TN. 'Freud-Marxism'), launched psihoanalitich. arguments in defense of anarcho-gedonistich. morality, arguing the need for the sexual revolution. Her he contrasted settings based M. Hirschfeld World League of sexual reform, whose bourgeois-reformist program does not change the class-economical. foundations of capitalist. system. For its part, P. put forward a radical left program 'revolution. action ', to-paradise decades later reduced in the youth counterculture of the organization neoanarhistskih communes and experiments with anti-authoritarian child-rearing. According to the theory of the sexual revolution, R., in the basis of class struggle is the wish to free sexual attraction of social oppression, and therefore eliminating 'repressive sexuality' is a prerequisite for the proletarian revolution. Of decisive importance is attached to a radical change in tradition. sexual morality and sex education (especially in childhood), and most importantly - a denial of 'Burj. family - the most important ideological. factory capital '. These regulations, developed them in the 'Sexual maturity, abstinence and marital morality. Criticism Bourges. sexual reform '(1930), reflected not so much the need for the emancipation of the individual from the bonds of patriarchal life and the dominance of proprietary interests in marriage and family relations as destructive phenomena crisis societies, the situation: catastrophic. weakening of the bonds of marriage and the family institution, the glorification of sex, the spread of prostitution and pornography. These contradictory trends help to understand the arguments of P. of 'the defeat of the sexual revolution in the USSR', presented to them in the 'fight for' new life 'in the Soviet Union' (1935). That was a crucial period in our history, when the theory and practice of 'free love' gave way to the consolidation trends in the socio-economical. moral and legal foundations of marriage and family relations. Developed P. radical left criticism of the family was caught up in the 60-ies. representatives of the Frankfurt, Sociology. School (Adorno and M. Horkheimer), existentialism (P. Beauvoir, author of 'other half') and had a mean impact on several areas of democratic. movement: 'New Left', neofeminizm (K. Millett, author of 'Sexual Politics'), the Negro movement in the U.S. (E. Cleaver, one of the 'Black Panther'), and even creative. intellectuals (drama by Jean Jean).
Assuming that the socio-watered, the struggle for the reconstruction of 'repressive' on the Island should be turned into a sexual revolution, R. developed the doctrine of 'sexual politics' and tried to implement it in practice. Initially, he had created in Germany broad 'sexually-watered. " Youth Movement, in a-Roe joined the young Nazis, and left-wing workers and students. Then, when the Communist Party under the leadership of P. created Germ. State. alliance of the proletarian sexual politics. In 1931, the Congress 'Sekspola' in Dц?sseldorf was filed on 20 thousand. man. Soon this led to open conflict with both psihoanalitich. And with the labor movement. In 1933 there was a finish, the gap R. with the communist. Party: from Germany, he was expelled for 'Trotskyism', from the Danish for 'speaking out against revolutionary politics'. In 1934 it was officially terminated his membership in the Intern. psihoanalitich. Association.
In the next period P. departs from the radical left his political activities. He moved to Norway and Oslo founds a new school psihosomatich. therapy. In 1934-37 on the basis of their sexological ideas conducting an experiment, research. bioelektrich. potential genital. These cut-you R. interpreted as opening them (in 1939) Orgon - a unique kind of energy, characteristic not only sexuality, but all manifestations of life. However, he did not find understanding from the dan. scientists because of persecution in the press was forced to leave the country.
In 1939 he received an invitation from the Amer. psihosomatich. honey. movement and with the support Malinowski moved to the U.S. with his laboratory orgone energy. In New York, until 1941, he - Professor. honey. psychology at the New School of Social. Issled. During this period, he comprehends the concept of sexual energy is natural-philosophical, as kosmich. 'orgone' energy. A number of works - 'Ether, God and the Devil' (1949) and others. it was presented naturfilos. concept of Orgon, according to Roy, this universal, all-pervading energy is the source of galaktich. systems and at the same time identical biol. energy of living beings. These attitudes are consonant with Hindu-Buddhist concept of the unity of Brahman and Atman, influenced the doctrine sovr. environmentalism and cosmism.
In 1940, P. constructed a battery of vital energy of the cosmos - Orgon, discussed the resultant effects of Einstein and claimed that this device is suitable for treating various physical and mentally. diseases, from cancer to hysteria. R. died in prison in Pennsylvania, spent 8 months in the custody of his two-year term designated for ignoring an injunction on the use of battery power Orgon.