Plevitskaya Hope( Great Russian singer)
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Biography Plevitskaya Hope
During his stormy life, . full dizzying ups and downs, . the great Russian singer Nadezhda Plevitskaya visited in a multitude of roles: a nun in the convent, . modest chorus, . dancers, . kafeshantannoy prima, . nurses, . "battle friend", . film actress, . general's, and even a spy,
. And her latest "scaffolding" was the French women's prison.
Nadezhda V. Vinnikov (in marriage Plevitskaya) was born in 1884 in the village Vinnikova Kursk province, in the God-fearing and hardworking farming family. From an early age - hard work, unassuming life and an equally simple rural joy: caroling with accordion, songs, dances. Education, only two and a half class parochial school, Nadia literally wept "the mother, prohibiting girls to attend classes. Passion for singing led Dezhku (so called her relatives) in the choir of Holy Trinity Monastery, where she lived for more than two years to be a nun.
Sad monastic existence for the soul did not have to live and impressionable peasant girl. Not surprisingly, accidentally hitting the circus show in Kursk, she did not hesitate decided to give up longing prosperous monastic novice in the impoverished freedom tsirkachki. A few days later Nadia was accepted into the troupe. Seemed a circus artist's career, nothing can prevent. But suddenly descended learn about them and the mother with the scandal took away the lost daughter of the "shameful" institution.
On his return to the monastery, of course, there was no question. Nadia arranged a maid for a wealthy merchant family, and moved to Kiev, the chorus comes in the chapel Alexandra Lipkin. Illiterate, not knowing the notes peasant girl had not only a magnificent voice, but also an absolute ear for music and can handle the most difficult solo parts. Hope soon becomes a professional singer, and knows all the "charm" wandering life of a provincial Russian artist: constantly moving from city to city, . hotel unsettled life, . fear of losing the engagement, . inevitable fans and patrons.,
. And, of course, endless love novels, one of which - with the Polish dancer Edmond Plevitskaya - over wedding
. Together with her husband hope some time working in a ballet troupe Stein, and then returned again to sing: first appears in the popular then, "the choir lapotnikov" Minkevich later - in the famous Moscow restaurant "Yar". From there, Hope Plevitskaya, recognized as one of the best performers of songs and Russian folk songs, goes to a restaurant Naumova. In autumn 1909, during one of the concerts in the Nizhny Novgorod Fair it first heard the great Russian tenor Leonid Sobinov. It was he who brought Plevitskaya on the big stage and invited to participate in a charity concert with well-known Russian artists Vasily Kachalov and Matilda Kshesinskaia.
. That same autumn the singer successfully performed solo concerts in Yalta, where she was invited to the party to the Minister of the imperial court to Count Fredericks
. Back in Moscow, Plevitskaya gives a concert in the Great Hall of the Conservatory, where she enthusiastically accepts the color of the Moscow intelligentsia.
. Tickets for the singer's performances are sold at exorbitant prices, enterprising impresario, organizing its tours in different cities of Russia
. Press applauds Russia's star of the scene.
Songs Plevitskaya for national identity and a sense of give a thousand times more than all the voices of all gunyavye gunyavyh nationalists together, "- wrote one of the then-fashionable music critics. Hope successfully removed in the films "The Power of Darkness" and "Cry of life" and gaining a truly country-wide fame. She enthusiastically accepts and simple audience, and regulars aristocratic salons, and household members acting evenings. She met with Chaliapin, Moskvin, Kachalov Yesenin, speaking before the royal family, and Nicholas II, struck a marvelous singer's voice, gives her a precious brooch and affectionately calls "our Kursk nightingales.
. At that time unheard of fees - in pre-revolutionary Russia Plevitskaya was one of the highest-paid actresses - the daughter of poor farmers to buy a luxurious apartment in St. Petersburg and a large plot of land near his native village, . which builds luxurious mansion, . favorite place of her summer vacation,
. Nadezhda fastened several dazzling novel with brilliant officers of the Guards (on epaulettes, she had a particular weakness), and one of them, Lieutenant Kirasirsky His Majesty's Regiment Shangin, soon became her second husband. With their first spouse Plevitskaya maintains friendly relations.
The outbreak of World War II soon finds married to a Swiss resort. True oath Shangin sent to the front. In order not to be separated from her husband, Hope nurse arranged in the divisional hospital in Kovno, where it has a military unit. In January 1915 during the chaotic retreat of the Russian army Shangin heroically killed "in the field of honor and glory". The singer only narrowly avoided a German captivity.
But she did not stay long inconsolable widow. This time, heart and hand it suggested that the lieutenant Yuri Levitsky, son of the commander of the 73rd Infantry Division, which once served Shangin.
On the life of the singer at the time of great turmoil of Russia and deprived her not only to apartments and country estates, but the entire state, little is known. Once on the territory occupied by the Bolsheviks, she performed concerts in his native Kursk, in Odessa, where she was stormy, but fleeting romance with Shulga, member of the Odessa Cheka. Summer of 1919 it could be found in one part of the Red Army, where he served as commander of a platoon of ex-lieutenant Levitsky. Autumn, both captured horse Intelligence Kornilov division, which was then commanded by General Skoblin. Only God knows what could happen to Hope and her unfortunate husband, if the commander of the intelligence did not recognize the "red sister" darling Russia officers. Plevitskaya taken to the battalion headquarters, where he had arranged an impromptu concert for the officers. "Plevitskaya sang, and the battalion commander to accompany her on the accordion," - later recalled one of its members.
. Soon Plevitskaya was in Turkey, the Gallipoli peninsula, which had been evacuated from the Crimea badly battered army of Baron Wrangel
. In the military camp, where the allies are "pickled" faithful to their army, held a secret betrothal, with twenty-seven Hope Plevitskaya Skoblin Nicholas, the youngest general of the Volunteer Army. During the years of civil grinder he made an incredibly fast-moving career - from captain to major general.
Ambitious and energetic, Skoblin became an active member Rossiyskogo Military Union (EMRO) and actually impresario Plevitskaya. He is always accompanied her during a tour. Paris, Berlin, Belgrade, Warsaw, Brussels - white emigration enthusiastically accept Russian songs performed by Plevitskaya, especially a hit at the time "you Zamelo snow, Russia". In 1926, Nadezhda V. successfully performed in the United States, where one of her concerts accompanied himself Sergei Rachmaninoff. A year earlier, in Berlin, published autobiography of the singer "Dezhkin Karagod, literary treated emigre writer Ivan е│ukasz. Foreword to the book was written by Alexey Remizov, and all costs for its publication has undertaken a long-time admirer Plevitskaya, known in Russian emigre wealthy philanthropist Mark Eitingon.
Not knowing foreign languages, the singer was unable to overcome the complex emigre artist and become a star of world value, as it could, for example, Chaliapin. And her repertoire - Russian folk songs and ballads - was interesting only to disadvantaged Russian emigrants and does not attract a European audience.
. Profits from the concert barely enough to lead a miserable likeness of his former life: there were difficulties in payment for a house bought in installments, it was necessary to calculate the servants ...
. In the mid-thirties and financial affairs Plevitskaya Skoblina suddenly recover
. The couple bought the car (an unheard-of luxury for Russian immigrants!), Are treated in expensive spas. Among the Russian emigres in France strongly rumors that Plevitskaya and her husband received money from the hep. Of course, the evidence then no one was, and the court officer's honor indignantly rejected any suspicion. In fact, not groundless.
. Now it is reliably known that Plevitskaya, and "general Plevitskaya" as sarcastically called the Good Kornilovite Skoblina caught under the heel of his wife, had been recruited by Soviet intelligence in the autumn of 1930.
. The former commander of the Kornilov division had written statement to the CEC of the USSR, which requested personal amnesty and grant him and his wife, his Soviet citizenship
. At Skoblina was brought up a personal matter. He and his wife were undercover nickname "Farmer" and "farmer" and a very decent salary for those days - two hundred dollars.
. "Farmers" in good faith practiced gepeushnye money and delivered to Moscow invaluable information on the EMRO and the lives of white emigration
. The climax of their intelligence career was the kidnapping of a prominent figure of Paris White Movement, the chairman of General Miller EMRO. Skoblin could easily slip away from two elderly and foolish generals, aides Miller, who, instead contact the police, have decided to expose the traitor. He simply ran out of the headquarters of EMRO, where he was invited to the proceedings, and hid the secret headquarters of the GPU, which was one floor above. He was later flown in torn apart by civil war Spain, where in 1938 Skoblin died "under mysterious circumstances". His wife, abandoned to their fate, awaiting arrest and trial, at which she denied to the end of his guilt, especially as direct evidence against her was not. Nevertheless verdict was harsh: 20 years hard labor.
. Nadezhda V. Plevitskaya died fall of 1940 in the women's prison in Rennes, where the bloodstained Europe has no one cared until one of the most talented Russian singers of XX century.