Alexey Petrov Zinovievich( Scientific)
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Biography Alexey Petrov Zinovievich
born 28 (15) October 1910 in the township village Cats Samara in the family of a village priest. Alex was the twelfth, the penultimate child in a big family, grew weak and sedentary. When Alyosha was five years old, died from tuberculosis, his father, and shortly thereafter burned his home and everything in it was. This misfortune made his mother, Zoya Nikolaevna, give the last two sons the same age - Alyosha and Severus to the upbringing of their aunt on the father, the rural teacher Catherine Vassilyevna Petrova. Later EV. Petrova has adopted the boys, giving them their name.
Primary Alexei Zinovievich received in the village of Cats, and school-seven years and graduated in 1926 in the city Melekese. He loved books and read a lot, but learned it does not matter, falling behind in math. Things reached the point that the mathematics teacher postponed his exam in the fall. This hurt the feelings of the boy. He sat down at the books and worked hard all summer, . a fall caused by the hapless student to the blackboard, . from which all expect another failure, . not only lightning decided the first task, . but coped brilliantly with all the other tasks, . who again and again offered him the astonished teacher,
. In this episode, may determine the fate of future mathematicians, scientists, already clearly visible at the main traits Zinov'evich Alexei Petrov - a strong will, hard work, remarkable perseverance.
. After finishing school, she enrolled in Melekessky teachers' training school, but a year later, in connection with the release of the adoptive mother to a pension, was forced to leave school and go to work
. Worked in Saratov maslotopa assistant, carpenter, and in 1931 together with his younger brother Severus arrived in Kazan for the construction KazGRESa (now TEC-1). Brothers life was hard, but in any circumstances, no matter what, Alex a lot, worked hard and eagerly, - ready to get into college. One day, rummaging in the collapse of the books at the flea market, Alex found a university textbook on higher mathematics and began to read. It has finally decided his fate. The choice was made. In 1932 he passed his exams as an external student for high school and entered the Physics and Mathematics of Kazan University.
There was a time the first five - a time of great plans, great hopes and enthusiasm of the public. With the young Soviet period the country experienced a remarkable flowering of Kazan University. Physics and mathematics, who returned from GцTttingen full of ideas and enthusiasm of the young professor NG. Chetaev created his famous "Kazan program," which brilliantly and then put into practice. Moved shortly before that in Kazan corresponding member of USSR NG. Chebotarev gathered around a talented young people, preparing the establishment of the Kazan algebraic school, and in-depth studies professor P.A. Shirokova in the theory of Riemann and generalized spaces again nominated Kazan University on one of the first places in the development of non-Euclidean geometry ...
. These people who became teachers Alexei Petrov, united a burning in their hearts the flame of pure service to science, higher understanding of its objectives, the greatest self-sacrifice and high moral principles
. These ideals A.Z. Petrov will be followed for life.
Freshmen physics and mathematics, began his studies on Sept. 1, 1932, immediately noticed capable and witty student A. Petrova, which was the glory that he was "mightily to solve any problems" and "cool knows mathematics". "And how he worked! - Recalled former classmate A.Z. Petrov, Prof. VG. Kopp. - He used to go see A.Z. while he worked. All questions and attempts to speak, he answered a kind of "moos". If you really hear a moo, so better to go. From the work it was impossible to tear. "
For gifted and persevering student drew the attention of Professor P.A. Shirokov. Work under his leadership was largely determined by scientific destiny A.Z. Petrova. P.A. Shirokov was one of the largest and most knowledgeable Soviet geometers. He was well acquainted with the ideas of NI. Lobachevsky the influence of matter on the properties of space, anticipates Einstein's theory of gravitation, as well as applications that reside Lobachevsky geometry and its generalizations in theoretical physics. In the years when Einstein's theory made its first steps and many physicists believed it hard to understand because of the complexity of the mathematical apparatus and weakly related to reality, P.A. Shirokov foresaw the great importance which will have a theory a few decades later, and target their students to annex geometry to the theory of gravitation. His proposed A.Z. Peter's thesis topic will be subsequently subject of his doctoral thesis, and its name will headline the classical monograph A.Z. Petrov, Einstein spaces.
After graduating from the University A.Z. Petrov has taught at various institutes of Kazan. Simultaneously, he worked under the guidance of P.A. Shirokova on Ph.D. dissertation, as is always hard, violently, without distinguishing the time of day, not noticing fed or hungry, satisfied sometimes a piece of bread and a glass of water.
These studies were interrupted by the war. Not having to defend his dissertation in the December cold sorokagradusnuyu 1941 Alex Zinovievich went to the front, near Moscow, the commander of a platoon of mortar fire.
In January 1943, the battery commander A.Z. Peter received intermittent leave to defend the dissertation, which was successfully. In August of that year, was severely wounded and returned home a disabled World War II 2nd team. Was sick, irritable. Disability was taken much later, after prolonged treatment.
After demobilization, Alex worked as an assistant professor Zinovievich KAI, which in 1945 joined the party. Joining the Party is very proud of the brothers wrote enthusiastic words about this event, the title of Communist and treasured all his life he was faithful. In the same year joined the faculty at the University of geometry. By this time Alex Zinovievich was married and he had a little son Alyosha. They had to leave the well-equipped departmental apartment and move into a university dormitory, a room devoid of amenities. But work at the university promised b'olshie opportunities for study and living facilities Alexei Zinovievich valued little and did not think much of them.
In the postwar years took final shape A.Z scientific interests. Petrova - the application of mathematical methods (geometry, group theory, algebra) to the theory of physical fields. In 1946 he began the study of Einstein spaces, and in the years 1952-54 proved a remarkable theorem, which brought him worldwide fame later. In this theorem establishes the existence of three types of Einstein spaces (in the future they have in the world literature as types Petrova). It was later revealed that belonging to the second and third types Petrova indicates the presence in the space of gravitational radiation. Thus managed to shed light on one of the most difficult and perplexing questions of general relativity.
The classification of Einstein spaces on three types formed the basis for his doctoral dissertation A.Z. Petrova, protected with great success in 1957, MSU. In Moscow, Alexei Zinovievich worked very much, as usual, not sparing himself, and after returning from doctoral selection committee headed by the University. Weary heart could not stand the new unrest. With myocardial infarction Alex Zinovievich was placed in the old hospital - in front of the university - to Professor Z.I. Malkin. Barely passed the first danger, demanded that the discharged. When refused, and forced his wife to the hospital to bring a pencil, paper and began to work. Doctors were furious and threatened dire consequences, but to break his stubbornness could not.
Five years later, all again. Again, it would require a book, and regardless of any prohibitions or persuasion, will persistently engage in, carry out and advise graduate students, will insist on early discharge home, where his studies will not interfere. Ratio A.Z. (so-called friends Petrova) to the disease was not bravado or frivolity - a disease for him was only a nuisance, from which it was necessary to get rid conquered.
In October 1956 A.Z. Petrov became Professor of Geometry, Kazan University, . and in 1960 headed the first (and so far only) in the Soviet Union Department of Theory of Relativity and Gravitation, . based at its active participation in the physics department of the Kazan University,
Continuing research A.Z. Petrov gave at that time, many forces organizational and methodological work. He was a brilliant lecturer. Strikingly, even for his energy and efficiency A.Z. Petrov prepares and reads at this time many special courses on gravity, . theory of relativity and related disciplines (until now the Department remains unique in the number and diversity read her special courses), . devoted much time in the academic work with students, . graduate assistants and faculty, . manages several regular seminar and edits a periodic compilation of "Gravitation and the Theory of Relativity", . published by the University of Kazan,
. In a short time he trained a galaxy of talented students, creating a scientific school, known far beyond the limits of Kazan, in our country and abroad.
. In 1960, Alexei Zinov'evich approved by the President Section gravity Science and Technology Council's MoU and COO of the USSR and chairman of the Soviet Commission for the International Committee on gravitation and relativity
. A.Z. Petrov hold office until the end of his life, playing a major role in the organization and development of research on gravitation in the Soviet Union and abroad.
In the 60's out of print monographs A.Z. Petrov, Einstein Spaces "and" New methods in general relativity ", summarizes the results of its long-term studies. These monographs, occupying a special place in world literature on the general theory of relativity, quickly recognized and have been translated into many foreign languages.
. Alex Zinovievich also showed continued interest in issues of the pilot study and confirmation of general relativity, . organized an experimental laboratory at the Department of Theory of Relativity and Gravitation, . subsequently, . during his work at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Academy of Sciences, . supervised jointly with Professor V.B,
. Bragin (MSU) experiments for the detection of gravitational radiation. He was also an active promoter of the theory of relativity. He wrote in 1961 a brochure entitled "Space, time and matter" differs extraordinary clarity and readability. This brochure has stood the two editions and was translated into Japanese.
Worked A.Z. still a lot, not less than twelve hours a day. Usually takes over a coffee table, sitting on the couch in his office - a large corner room with a corner cut off, with portraits of P.A. Shirokova and A. Einstein on the walls, overlooking a bustling intersection in the traffic-filled streets of Kirov and Chernyshevsky. Somehow still found time to read. I could suddenly surprise the knowledge of little-known poet or writer, in his conversation was interesting, mockingly witty.
He spoke little and slowly, subjecting listeners frugal, powerful, precise words. He wrote as well, discarding all the unnecessary, revealing the essence. His energetic, devoid of cliche smoothness sharp phrases easy to remember. The same demand from students, derisively correcting "cloth language" of their first articles.
December 26, 1969 A.Z. Petrov was elected academician of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, and in July 1970 headed the Department of Theory of Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Academy of Sciences. Departing in Kiev, was not like himself, sad. In Kiev, a lot of sick. Lying in the hospital, continued to work. Every day, on a special schedule, taking in his house graduate students and staff of the department, supervised, advised.
In April 1972, a series of works "group-invariant methods of research in the theory of gravity" A.Z. Petrov was awarded the Lenin Prize, and on May 9 of that year he died in hospital the next day after surgery. Thrombus entered into the heart and stopped him.
Shortly before his death, at the end of 1971, Alexei Zinovievich arrived in Kazan. Was taciturn, aloof, like a fenced off from all the invisible wall. In a conversation with VG. Coppo said that "lives in a beautiful apartment overlooking the garden. Around the silence. That's where the great work ". These words - the whole A.Z. Petrov, a man whose desire for knowledge was unstoppable, and beautiful as a flight arrow released from a tightly stretched bow exactly on target.