RICHARD WAGNER( Biggest German opera composer)
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Biography RICHARD WAGNER
1813 - 1883
The largest German opera composer 2 nd half of 19 century. Reformer Opera. The purpose of his creative life - the creation of musical works of the future, a musical drama. Possible creator of such a work he considered only a. This is - a work in which the romantic idea of synthesis of arts. This is - an expression of software in the opera. To implement this plan Wagner abandoned the traditions of operatic forms. He tried to bring the opera to life. He came to all-inclusive, continuous development. Present large vocal and orchestral scene. In his music dramas ( 'Tristan and Isolde', 'Der Ring des Nibelungen') suppressed vocal orchestra, becomes an instrument of a symphony orchestra. She recited, it is very difficult, there is no singing, arioso. The external effect is minimized, it seemed to have moved to the psychological aspect, which represents the orchestra with the help of a huge system of leitmotifs (in 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' more than 100 keynotes). Wagner unusually elevated the role of the orchestra. He was an extraordinary master of orchestral color. Orchestra unusually colorful, pyshen, grandiose. In 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' uses a quadruple orchestra (8 horns!). Get your own design quartet tubes. There is a bass tuba, contrabass trombone, expanded string group, 6 harps. His harmony is striking intense, refined sound. It contributes to the continuous rise of emotions, as there is no tonic support, and solid interrupted turnover. This creates an endless melody. Wagner wrote 13 operas, and has come a long way opera composer. By musical drama, he did not come immediately.
Born in Leipzig in the family of official. Father died young. Stepfather - actor and writer - Wagner accustomed to the theater. Wagner took a great interest in theater and 15 years wrote the tragedy 'Leibald and Adeloida'. Impressed by Weber's operas and Beethoven's music. After the performance of Beethoven's Symphony Orchestra Gewandhaus Wagner decided to become a composer. Posted overture - a work for piano. In his youth fascinated by Hoffmann. At Leipzig University he studied as a student of music. Threw University. Worked with Theodore Veynligom. He wrote sonatas for piano and orchestral overture, symphony, the music for 'Faust'.
1833. It starts with a period of wandering. Worked in various opera houses (including the theater of Wö?rzburg). Posted by opera 'Fairies'. Story by Carlo Gozzi. Romantic opera with fantastic terrors under the influence of Weber. After Wagner was disappointed in the German opera, and criticized it in the 'Deutsche Oper'.
1836. Makdeburgsky Theater. He wrote the opera 'The prohibition of Love' by Shakespeare (comedy "Measure for Measure '). The influence of Italian opera. Works in the theater in the city Kenesberg (Kaliningrad). He married an actress and went to Riga. In Riga, directed the opera theater.
1839. He runs with his wife in Paris, fleeing from creditors. Received a letter of recommendation from Meyerbeer, but it did not help him.
In 1839 wrote the opera 'Rienzi' in the style of great French opera. Performances did not achieve its. In 1842 wrote the opera 'The Flying Dutchman' overture 'Faust', songs, and wrote articles about Berlioz, modern opera, the story 'Pilgrimages to Beethoven'. Impressed by Berlioz, Chopin, Liszt.
In 1842 he left for Dresden. He became conductor. Put 'Rienzi' and 'Flying Dutchman'. Wagner fond of philosophy, socialism. 'Flying Dutchman' - Wagner's first major achievement. Been mapped out features of the musical drama: the legendary story, the presence of cross-cutting scenes, enhancing the role of the orchestra, the presence of leitmotifs.
1845. Opera 'Tannhöºuser'. In it the influence of German opera of chivalry 'Evrianta' Weber.
1848 - 'Lohengrin'. The most harmonious opera, in which there are cross-cutting stage and the orchestra has not suppress vocal. Develop the plot of the opera 'Die Meistersinger'. Conceives the 'Ring des Nibelungen'. Writes articles, which criticizes the social system, article 'Revolution'. In 1849, putting up flyers, was on the barricades. After the defeat of the revolution in hiding from the authorities at the Liszt in Weimar. In 1849, fled to Switzerland.
Years of Swiss exile. He wrote many articles, which formulates his operatic reform. It is: 'Art and Revolution', 'Opera and Drama', 'The art work of the future'. In 1852 he returned to 'Der Ring des Nibelungen'. Posted librettos to the operas. 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' composed more than 20 years. His philosophical views during this time changed. He is imbued with the mood of doom. I turned to the philosophy of Schopenhauer. 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' was first performed in Bayreuth in 1876, Mr.. 'The World as Will and Idea' - work of Schopenhauer.
Wagner justified in their fundamentals the idea of its articles of reforms. It is: 'Art and Revolution', 'Music and Drama', 'The art work of the future', 'Address to the friends' (preface to the libretto of the three operas - 'Flying Dutchman', 'Tannhauser', 'Lohengrin', in which some of the principles of reform already been implemented). All these articles were written in the early 50's.
1859 - chief creative work - opera 'Tristan and Isolde'. In this drama, vividly realized reform Wagner. This is - a grand vocal-symphonic poem, in which the action moved into the inner psychological plan.
Music is a huge emotional tension. Music is flowing single stream. Huge cross-cutting scenes. The prevailing form is not. No choir. Instead of arias monologues. Wagner uses a system of leitmotifs, which express different states of the same feelings - love (the leitmotif of longing, the leitmotif of a loving glance). The whole musical fabric - weaving these leitmotifs. Vividly musical language appears in the introduction.
In the introduction many leitmotifs. 3-private form. It starts with a keynote longing. Expresses the harmonic structure of Wagner's music - alterirovannye chords, interrupted by turnovers, prolonging the movement and leading away from the tonic, on the stability. The first chord is called 'Tristanovsky chord' (IR. D43 ACC).
Opera for a long time was not intended. In the late 50-ies. Wagner began to seek permission from authorities to return to Germany. In 1861, he returned and settled in Bibrehe (Rhein). I started writing a new opera - 'Die Meistersinger' (comic opera). Financial position at Wagner's grave. In 1863, Mr.. He traveled to Russia. Enthusiastic reception. We paid a big fee. Highly commended Wagner Odoyevski and Serov in his articles. In 1864, Mr.. Wagner has surrounded himself with the Bavarian King Ludwig II. Wagner lived in Munich. Friendship with the king made him a staunch monarchist. In Munich in 1865. put 'Tristan and Isolde'.
Again, Wagner lived in Switzerland. Here he graduated from 'Die Meistersinger'. The opera was performed conductor Buelow. Wagner led his wife - the daughter of Liszt (apparently a sign of gratitude and appreciation). In honor of his son Zikfrita Wagner wrote the play 'Zikfrit idyll' on the material of the opera.
Continuing is working on 'Der Ring des Nibelungen'. Opera 'Die Meistersinger' occupies a special place in the work of Wagner. Written in 16 th century household plot. Music is based on the popular German song. Paramount importance vocal element. Many choirs, ensembles, but also many leitmotifs. During these years, Wagner conceived the creation of their own theater. Tauzig - organizer of the society of admirers of Wagner.
Theater Wagner appeared at Bayreuth. In 1872 the first stone was laid Theater. In this regard, Wagner performed the 9 th Symphony of Beethoven, and settled near the theater. In 1876 was the opening of the theater. Performed at the opening of 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' 3 times.
Tchaikovsky praised the music of Wagner, but took his operatic reform. 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' - a grandiose tetralogy of 4 operas: 'Das Rheingold', 'Valkyrie', 'Zikfrit', 'Gö²tterdöºmmerung'. The philosophy of 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' is close to Schopenhauer. Heroes first already doomed.
At the heart of music - the system of leitmotifs. They were in the opera about 100. No division of the numbers (through development). Grand orchestral composition of the quaternary. A huge brass band.
After the 'Ring des Nibelungen "Wagner was adopted for the creation of the latest musical drama' Parsifal '. It develops Christian, moral issues. Wagner became religious at the end of life. He willed that after his death, 'Parsifal' should be put in 30 years only in Bayreuth. Wrote an article 'Art and Religion'. In 1883, Wagner died on holiday in Venice.
Wagner's opera of reform
These articles Wagner wrote in Switzerland. In these articles, he develops the idea of synthesis of arts, which will be embodied in a product of the future. This - a musical drama. Its creator is Wagner.
1. Wagner criticized his day the Italian and French opera. Italian opera, he criticized for its excesses. Especially got in his articles Rossini. Wagner vehemently opposed the French opera (especially against Auber and Meyerbeer). 'Pustotsvet rotten social order', 'candied boredom' - so put it on French opera, Wagner. French opera, he was criticized for excessive opulence. He believed that the need to create a new musical drama that embodies all the arts.
2. Scene Selection. Opera should disclose the eternal problem, the idea of eternal life. In these subjects should not be anything passing. Household plots and stories are not suitable because they are only valid for the time in which they are written.
3. Wagner believed that music and drama should merge. Development must be continuously - as in life. Therefore, individual numbers must be absent, tk. they divide the movement. Wagner denied the arias, ensembles, choruses as unnatural forms. So instead of arias - monologues, instead of ensembles - Dialogues. No Choir. Monologues and dialogues - part of the cross-cutting scenes.
4. In terms of Wagner's leadership role in the drama is not the voice and orchestra. The word can not express the depth and sense of inner experiences. This function performs Orchestra. Orchestra in Wagner is like the ancient chorus, who commented on what is happening and gives sense. All this happens through a system of leitmotifs. Each leitmotif that something stands. Musical fabric weave and make changes keynotes. Leitmotifs can express things - a ring, spear, ideas - Leith. Ban fate. Continuous development of symphonic form Wagnerian endless melody. Vocals are an instrument of total invoices. Melodies are very individual. Wagner rejects the reliance on established elements.
The reform did not materialize immediately. Some of its elements embodied in the operas of 40-ies - 'Flying Dutchman', 'Tannhauser', 'Lohengrin'. Most fully embodied the reform of the 'Tristan and Isolde' and 'Der Ring des Nibelungen'.
Overture to 'Tannhauser'
1845. Dresden. Knight's Opera House, which continues the line 'Evrianty' Weber.
Overture is the basic conflict, the basic idea of the opera. This - the opposition of the world of the righteous, pure, associated with the image of the pilgrims, but on the other hand - the world of Venus. This contrast is expressed in different areas of intonation - Choral music pilgrims, diatonic and chromatic music of Venus, with a diminished seventh chords, fast pace, tremolo strings.
Complex 3-private form. Very large. The ends of the - the world of pilgrims, and the average - the world of Venus - the sonata form with a reprise and a mirror with an episode in the development of. Form has concentric features.
Ich. E-dur. R Pilgrim. Chorale brass instruments (I do not understand, after all Chorale - church choir chant, and the musical piece in this form). Diatonic. 2 nd theme - the theme of suffering Tannhöºuser. It sounds from cellos. Chromatic sequence. Repeats varied. Form Part I - 3-private with the varied repetition of the middle and reprise. Suddenly stops chorale.
Middle section. Contrast sphere - chromatic, fast tempo, reduced seventh chords, the tissue vibrates. The violins in high register. There is a small entry. Founded mind. 7 ACC. From tremolo strings in the high register. Colorful Tabs in woodwind.
GP. E-dur. 1 st topic - marsheobraznaya. 2-I theme is based on the introduction to the sonata form.
S.P. Accurate. Founded in detention.
PP. H-dur. This - a hymn to Venus, which is a contest of singers sang Tannhauser.
Development. Based on 2-nd theme GP. Inside (middle) begins to slow and there is a theme of Venus clarinet solo. G-dur. In the high register under the tremolo strings.
General recapitulation. Subject pilgrims - E-dur. 3-private form without repeating the middle reprise. Overture completed form.
1848. Dresden. One of the most harmonious works of Wagner, which already features clearly show through reform of Wagner, but not exaggerated form, as well as to all the important components of the opera are in equilibrium. In the opera, 3 steps. Music develops slowly, narrative. Psychological drama. External action does not suppress. Here Wagner has already adapted reformist operatic form - through the scene. Great scene of continuous development, which may include both solo and ensemble, and choral moments. Instead of arias - the monologues, stories, instead of duets - Dialogues. There is still the choir. He serves as a commentator (as in the ancient chorus), expresses the feelings. Quite a lot of leitmotifs, but not all of the musical fabric of their full. Motifs associated with mental state - the leitmotif of Lohengrin, the leitmotif of the Grail; have motifs associated with the idea - the leitmotif of the ban, the court of God, evil forces. The role of the orchestra is very great, but it still does not suppress the vocal. Colorful orchestral numbers (entry to the 3 rd action 'wedding feast').
This is the first opera, where instead of the overture entry. Vocals are very expressive. Then they will be recited, and there are many beautiful melodies (Duet-dialogue Elsa and Lohengrin - 3 action, 'Elsa's Dream' - 1 E, 'Story of Lohengrin' - 3 in.). The idea of a romantic opera, but the plot is a legendary. The idea of the incomprehensibility of the world around great person. This Wagner wrote in the article "Appeal to the friends'. The conflict of two main areas of music expressed. 1-th sphere is connected with Lohengrin. It is characterized by diatonichnost, Choral. A-dur. High registers. The feeling of purity. 2-I sphere - the evil forces. They are expressed in Telramund and Ortrud. Chromatics, low registers. Fis-moll. Development of 1 st Area occurs in the 1 st and 3 rd action (framing the opera). In the 1-th picture of the 1 st action - farewell to the swan overlaps thematically with the story of Lohengrin in the 3 rd step. Characteristics of the evil forces - in the 2 nd step. Elsa - a complex growing image. It changes. In the beginning - the chorale, diatonichnost, and as it has been assailed by doubts, to penetrate her party and chromatic tones so evil. It is very noticeable in the duet of Elsa and Lohengrin in the 3 rd action.
Introduction. Pass the basic idea of the opera - a knight descends from heaven to earth and returns to the sky. Based on the 1 st theme-keynote Lohengrin - Ambassador of the Grail. Topic varies. High register. Divisions of the violins. A-dur. Diatonic scale. Subject gradually descends. When entering copper, Lohengrin comes to earth. Tutti. Between 2 nd and 3 rd holding the main theme appears topic of sleep Elsa - her admiration Lohengrin. In the end there is the 3rd issue of the downward movement - the theme of admiration of the people Lohengrin. At the end of the violin and there are 1-I tone leitmotif of the Grail.
1 Effect. Stage 1 - the action on the bank of the Scheldt. Stage 2 - the emergence of Elzy. As-moll. It is as if in a trance. On accusations, she does not respond and suddenly begins to tell his dream.
1-st section of sleep. As-dur. Choral Sheet Music. Gradually acquired an enthusiastic character. The culmination of la b.
2-nd section of sleep. Elsa tells about a knight from sleep. There is his indirect characterization. Appears motif of the Grail, but in As-dur (the tone of sleep). Tenor Knight - As-dur. Marsheobrazny, short. On it the culmination of the 1 st action - exit Lohengrin.
After the 2 nd section of sleep occurs leitmotif of God's Court. Finalized mind. 7 ACC. After each call herald this topic sounds below 2 and when the topic sounds prayer Elzy. More A-dur and the approximation of Lohengrin. Leitmotif leitmotif of the Grail knight. Similar assumption.
Highlights - Lohengrin comes to earth. Sounding the leitmotif of Lohengrin, the knight. Marsheobrazny. Further conversation Lohengrin Elsa. He asks her if she wanted him to defend her. She agrees. Sounding the leitmotif of the ban (Lohengrin forbade her to ask who he is). The tenor of the ban sounds in as-moll from voting. Ends in As-dur. Then a short bout. Defeated Lohengrin. 3rd scene ends with a leitmotif of Lohengrin, the knight in B-dur.
2-e effect. In the beginning should be characteristic of evil forces - Telramund and his wife, Ortrud. Small entry contains the orchestral tone of evil - fis-moll, low register, chromatic aberration (the theme of evil). Abundance syncopation. Next 2 nd issue of evil - the leitmotif of doubt. Then comes the issue of the ban - fis-moll, but it sounds just the 1 st half. Then again, theme of evil. They alternate with keynote doubt (2 nd issue of evil).
Stage 4. Wedding card-playing goes to the temple. Small orchestra entry. Scope Lohengrin. Es-dur. 2 nd issue of entry into B-dur.
3rd effect. It starts with a picture of a wedding feast. Brilliant orchestral introduction. Powerful sound. Very lush orchestration. G-dur. 3-private form. Large (action). 1-I issue the strings in the high register. 2 nd issue of copper (horn and trombone). The middle section is softer, lyrical, the strings. 3rd issue = 1-I theme.
2 nd Stage. Climax of the drama. Lohengrin and Elsa. Ends fight Telramund and Lohengrin. Party Elsa changes. Initially she melodic. Then it penetrates the theme of evil. Tenor of love in E-dur. Sounds in the orchestra. It is based on a love duet. First sings Elsa. Duo consent. Then Elsa begins to ask questions. 2-nd section of the duet. Big triads. At the end of the party Elsa enters theme of evil. At the end of Lohengrin kills Telramund, who burst into the bedroom, where they were Elsa and Lohengrin to kill Lohengrin Lohengrin but his beat.
3rd Stage. Peculiar reprise 1 d. And since. The most important point - the story Lohengrin. A-dur. Subject Grail. This same material in 1 effect (farewell to the swan). Started as a WWII entry. Subject Grail in the orchestra. Subject - melodious recitative. Orchestra parts, first in uppercase. There are different motifs. Voices descend. Increased dynamics. At the end sounds the leitmotif of Lohengrin, the knight. Next - the reaction of the people and the king.
Stage swan transformation into a prince. Elsa died.