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HANDEL Georg Friedrich

( German composer.)

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Biography HANDEL Georg Friedrich
German composer. Discovered in the early outstanding musical ability. From 9 years of age he took composition lessons and playing the organ in F. V. Zach in Galle, with 12 years of writing church cantatas and organ pieces. In 1702, studied law at the University of Halle, in parallel served as organist at the Protestant Cathedral. From 1703, Mr.. - 2 nd violinist, harpsichordist and composer, then the Hamburg Opera. In Hamburg, was written several works, including the opera "Almira, Queen of Castile '(1705). In 1706-10 perfected in Italy, where he appeared as a virtuoso on the harpsichord and organ (presumably competed with D. Scarlatti). Handel brought widespread fame of the opera 'Agrippina' (1709, Venice). In 1710-16 the court conductor in Hanover, from 1712 lived mainly in London (in 1727 and received British citizenship). The success of the opera 'Rinaldo' (1711, London) Gendelev cemented his fame as one of the leading opera composers of Europe. He has participated in opera companies (m. n. Academy), set his opera, as well as works by other composers, especially for Handel's success was the work in the 'Royal Academy of Music' in London. Handel created several operas a year. The independent nature of the composer has complicated his relations with certain circles of the aristocracy, . besides, . genre of opera seria, . in which Handel was, . was alien to the English bourgeois-democratic public (Evidence of this set in 1728 satirical 'Opera beggar' J,
. Gay and IK Pepusha). In 1730-ies. composer looking for new ways of musical theater - strengthens the role of the chorus and ballet in the opera ( 'Ariodant', 'Alchina', two-1735). In 1737 Handel became seriously ill (paralysis). On recovery he returned to the creativity and organizational activities. After the failure of the opera 'Deydamiya' (1741) Handel refused to compositions and operas. Center of his work was an oratorio, which he has devoted the last decade, the active creative work. Among the most popular works by Handel - the oratorio "Israel in Egypt '(1739),' Messiah '(1742), which after a successful premiere in Dublin, met with sharp criticism of the clergy. The success of the later oratorios, including 'Judas Maccabeus' (1747), contributed to Handel's participation in the struggle against attempts to restore the Stuart dynasty. The song 'Hymn volunteers' calls to the struggle against the invasion army of the Stuarts, led to the recognition of Handel as English composer. While working on the last speaker 'Ievfay' (1752) from Handel's eyesight deteriorated, he became blind, yet until the last days continued to produce his works for publication.

. On the material of biblical stories and their refractive index in English poetry Handel opened the picture of disaster and suffering, the greatness of a people's struggle against the oppression of oppressors
. Handel was the creator of a new type of vocal and instrumental works, which combine the magnitude of the (powerful choruses) and strict arhitektonichnost. Works Handel characteristic monumental heroic style, optimistic, life-affirming top uniting into one harmonious whole heroic, epic, lyric poetry, the tragic, pastoral. Absorbing and creatively reinterpreting the influence of Italian, French, English, music, Handel remained on the origins of creativity and ways of thinking German musician. The formation of his aesthetic views held under the influence and. Mattheson. On the operatic works of Handel was influenced by musical dramaturgy P. Kaiser. Artist of the Enlightenment, Handel summarized accomplishments of Baroque music and paved the way to musical classicism. Prominent playwright, Handel tried to create a musical drama in opera and oratorio. Not breaking completely with the canons of opera seria, by dramatic contrast between layers Handel sought to stress the development of. Along with high heroics in the operas of Handel appear comedy, parody, satire elements (opera 'Deydamiya' is one of the earliest examples of t. n. dramma giocosa). In the oratorio, non rigid constraints of genre, Handel continued quest for musical drama, the plot and composite plans, focusing on classic French drama n. Corneille and M. Racine, and summarized his achievements in the field of opera seria, cantatas, Passion of the German, British antemov, instrumental and concerto style. Throughout career, Handel was in the instrumental genres, the most important are his concerti grossi. Motivic development, particularly in the orchestral works of homophonic-harmonic style is dominated by Handel on the development of polyphonic material, melodica different length, intonation and rhythmic energy, clarity of the picture. Works by Handel had a significant influence on the I. Haydn in. A. Mozart, L. Beethoven, M. I. Glinka. Oratorio by Handel served as models for reform operas K. V. Gluck. In various countries based Handel Society. In 1986, in Karlsruhe founded the International Handel Academy.

Text taken from a multimedia encyclopedia
"Classical music"

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