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AVDEEV Mikhail

( Writer, novelist)

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Biography AVDEEV Mikhail
(1821 - 76).
He was born in Orenburg, in a rich family in the Ural Cossack, a prominent figure Yaitsky troops. As a child he studied under the guidance of then living in exile in Orenburg, Thomas Zan, the famous Polish leader, a friend of Mickiewicz and a member of the Vilna Society Filaretov ". It seems that he took from Zana first beginnings of a broad humanism and love of literature. After graduating from high school in Ufa, A. entered the corpus of Communications, in 1842, was released from there and served as a lieutenant in Nizhny Novgorod. In 1852 he resigned as a captain. In the Crimean campaign, was chosen chief of the militia detachments Orenburg. In the sixties was a member of the presence of Peasant Affairs and an honorary trustee of the school. In the summer he lived in a beautiful mountainous part of Sterlitamak County, in the village, he inherited from his father, and spent the winter in the capitals. In 1862, his peaceful life was disrupted in the expulsion of Penza (in connection with the political process M.L. Mikhailova). A year later he was allowed to go abroad, where he was before and where there is now friends with IS. Turgenev. Later A. returned to Russia. A literary work. began in the forties. Intelligent, well read and receptivity, and. keenly listened to the movements of public life and skillfully exploited in their works a substantial margin of his observations of the provincial, metropolitan and overseas. His tastes, attitudes and literary style formed in the forties under the influence of works of Turgenev, who was for a. teacher and model, and which is dedicated to his "reef". Later literary critics accused him, like Turgenev, the backwardness and lack of understanding of new generations. His liberalism in the assessment of social phenomena, humanism and tolerance in a broad moral and domestic matters, a gentle way in the descriptions of nature - all that created the success of a. in the first half of its activity, then seemed to have inadequate and bland in terms of extremes of the sixties and seventies. First and Tremendous success has created a. his trilogy ( "Barbara", "Notes Tamarin" and "Smith"), printed in the "Contemporary" in 1849, 1851 and 1852 and then published separately in 1852 under the name "Tamarin". Long life in the province gave a. opportunity to closely observe the type commonly encountered while grinding, provincial Pechorin. The features of this type have been aptly captured in the trilogy, the word "Tamarin" became winged and in those days magazines and newspapers constantly used in a nominal sense, as Onegin or Oblomov. Over trilogy quickly followed by other works: the fifties were a time of high tension in a creative. Cooperating in the "Contemporary", . Fatherland Notes, . "Library for Reading", . St. Petersburg Vedomosti and other bodies, . he acted as writer's ( "clear days", . Fiery serpents, . "A decent man", . "Good party", etc.), . and as the author of travel letters ( "A trip to the mare", . "Letters from St. Petersburg", . "From the village, . "Trip Notes, . "Because of the border"), . and as a columnist (feuilleton in the "Contemporary" 1852 - 53 years, . under the pseudonym "Empty Man"), . and as a correspondent from the Orenburg region (in the "Day" Aksakov, . 1861 - 62 years),
. The first decade of literary activities A. completed his best work, a novel - "Underwater stone" (in the N 10 and 11 "Contemporary in 1860, then separately). The plot now-forgotten novel comes to, . that girl, . daughter landowner, . Natasha Lyubanina meets with an elderly neighbor, landlord-Sokovlinym, . an intelligent, . good, . educated, . word - outstanding, . falls under the moral and educational influence, . Finally, . falls in love with him,
. She meets in Sokovline long matured reciprocal feeling, . but aging man, . badly mauled by worldly miseries, . largely been disappointed, . strange illusions and sober reason, . afraid to take the love of an inexperienced girl, . foreseeing the possibility of cooling and a new passion on her part,
. Defeated by her love, he marries Natasha, and for several years they lived happily until the scene is not there a childhood friend of Natasha's first student, then a writer and public figure of the "new" Komlev. His distinctive personality, . new views, . sentiments and aspirations, . It flared up in the old affection for Natasha entice her, the rest was finishing a strong temperament, it is blossoming women, . and Natasha goes to Komleva, . leaving child, . with the knowledge and consent of the husband, . which sees this as the inevitable implementation of its previous concerns and does not consider itself entitled to oppose a new sense of his wife, . Although severely affected,
. Ridding fragile passion, Natasha parted with Komleva and returns home, meeting the old love and respect her husband. The plot is simple and not new; critics point A, that he was close to the plot of "Jacques" J. Sand, "Polina Sachs Druzhinina and other novels. Underwater Stone had, however, a huge success: firstly, he appeared at an opportune moment, in the era of re-evaluation of the different values, including women and the marriage issue, and secondly, a mediocre plot treated with extraordinary skill and persuasiveness. Graceful, . simple and clear, . Turgenev folds, . Language; slender plan, . without unnecessary details and extensions, a few clearly-defined types, beautiful, . concise and accurate descriptions of the landlord and the rural nature of life, and finally, . subtle and deeply truthful analysis of the complex emotions of the two main characters, . - All this makes "reef" in the first row then fiction,
. Due to these advantages, the novel and is now read with interest, it is easy to catch the curious features of the "superfluous men" (in the person Sokovlina) and the "realists" Bazarov Pisarevsky-type (Komlev). The sympathies of the author - on the side of the first, and the "new people" he is not averse to reproach of selfishness, dryness and other things. Literary ideologues "new people" felt it, and when A. made in 1868 with a new novel, "Between two fires", greeted him unfavorably. The hero of the novel Kamyshlintsev brought up in aristocratic surroundings and long time not finding a case, added a finally, to the "new woman" engaged in self-employment, and gets caught between two fires: the radicals and conservatives. Radical critics found that A. not severely condemned the squire and the "vulgarian" Kamyshlintseva, and "These new people, if not ridiculed good-author, then at least, were not understood by them and put in the shade in the utter disregard" (Skabichevsky). Roman has not had much success, as the later works of A. ( "Mary Magdalene", "Dry Love", "Pestrenkaya life"). A final literary works. was the novel "In the forties," published in the Journal of Europe "in 1876, after the death of the author, and depicts, among other things, a circle of Belinsky and Herzen. And Poems. did not publish at all, but of his dramas were known to the public only one (the other remained in manuscript): "a petty-bourgeois family, marching to the Alexandrina scene in season 1868 - 1869. and having a modest success. Special mention should be one work of A., were published first in the "Week" and later appeared in 1874 alone - "Our society is in the heroes and heroines of literature for fifty years". In this book are easy, . accurate, . witty, . Although surface, . Specifications: Chatsky, . Onegin, . Pechorin, . "superfluous men", . Rudin, . Insarova, . Bazarov and others; "heroines": Sophia Famusov, . Tatiana, . Bela, . Princess Mary and Faith, . Masha from "quiet", . Lisa from "The Noble Nest", . Natalia (Rudin), . Helen (Eve) and "new women",
. The book was a success, read a lot and still not useless and is recommended to students as an interesting guide. A. enjoyed a large and persistent, though not always benevolent attention of critics. Wrote about him: Apollon Grigoriev, Druzhinin, Shelgunov, P. Tkachev, M. smt, Skabichevsky, SA. Vengerov, P. Boborykin etc.. - See: "critical-biographical dictionary of Russian writers," Russian books "," Sources of the dictionary of Russian writers, SA. Vengerov, as well as "Russian Biographical Dictionary". In 1907, the newly appeared "Complete Works" M.V. Avdeev and separately - "Our society is in the heroes and heroines of literature". N. Pv.

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AVDEEV Mikhail, photo, biography
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