The scion of the ancient noble family, A. certainly had vivid childhood impressions of the proud consciousness of the family gentility. Hero made him famous autobiography, grandfather, Stepan Mikhailovich, grandson dreamed of it as a successor "of the famous family of Shimon" - fantastic Varyag, nephew of the King of Norway, left for Russia in 1027. S. T. - A son, Timothy Stepanovich. (1759 - 1832) and Maria Nikolaevna Zubovaya, daughter of assistant governor of Orenburg, was born in Ufa, September 20, 1791. Love of nature - a completely alien to his mother, through townswoman - The future writer had inherited from his father. In the initial development of his personality all fades into the background before the impact of the steppe of nature, which are inextricably linked first awakening of his powers of observation, his first perception of life, his early enthusiasm. Along with nature, peasant life invaded thought-provoking boy. Plowtail aroused in him not only compassion, but also respect, their servants were not only legally, but mentally. Female half servants, as always, the keeper of folk-poetry, acquainted the boy with songs and tales, with the Christmas games. And "Scarlet Flower", recorded many years later by the memory of the story housekeeper Pelagia - a random piece of the vast world of folk poetry, which imposes a boy servants, maiden, d.
But earlier folk literature came to the city, mainly in translation, old friend Anichkov mother brought the boy into unceasing delight disparate collection of "Children's Reading" AI. Novikova. In the world of poetic lyricism has introduced its "Children's Library" Kampe, translated Shishkov, made a tremendous impression on him as the works of Xenophon - Anabasis "and the history of Cyrus the younger. This has already been a transition from children's books to the present literature. With his characteristic gusto, he immersed himself in Rossiada "Kheraskov and essays Sumarokova, then his" go mad, "Fairy Tales" Thousand and One Nights, "and next to them read" My trinkets "Karamzin and his" Aonidy ". A long series of books of memoirs A. shows how little can be regarded as an environment in which he spent his early childhood, a commonplace situation landlord backwater XVIII century. Quite early influences to the house and the village joined the impact of official school. And Kazan Gymnasium, where A. entered the tenth year, and a new teacher, a stern and clever Kartashevskiy, and comrades, and new interests - it all comes down to the whole world has a beneficial effect on the open impressions per. The school was above the normal level, even on a plan of the founders of it had to be something more complete - something like the Lyceum. In school A. spent only three and a half years, the end of which captures new literary interests
. It was, . primarily, . Theater, . which is always held the A., . especially in the first-half of his literary activity, . which brought them together with his friend, . Alexander Panaev, . "lover of Russian literature", . "swain Karamzin", . Publisher handwritten journal Arcadian shepherdess ", . which decided not, . however, . participate A., . scribbling secret,
. After more than a year - the university - A. already published the magazine itself, along with AND. Panayev. He stayed at the university, while continuing to take classes in high school, to 15 1 / 2 years, but this year and a half mean a lot in its development. It is difficult to say that played a big role here: collecting butterflies or a friendly magazine, the obsession with the theater or literary controversy. Actually "scientific evidence" - as he complains - he brought the University of little: however, something was in the air audiences, something infect the idealism of curiosity and knowledge. The French naturalist lectures Fuchs, undoubtedly played a significant role in the consolidation of the innate powers of observation AG, which later gave IS. Turgenev's right to put him in certain respects above Buffon. Here he comprehended his love for nature, here secured a love for literature. Among high-school students in Kazan, the flame, but superficially bowed Karamzin, one A. was, after some hesitation, a staunch supporter of Shishkov.
The university started a productions. A. moved rapidly among the young artists, accompanied by the resounding success of his speech, and inspires him, he was even head of the amateur cup. The repertoire was for its time quite progressive: not only "kotsebyatina, but also excerpts from" The Robbers "by Schiller. Beginner artist found a high sample to actor and playwright Plavilschikov, Kazan tour which accompanied the exultation of very young students. Having a university diploma with propisaniem such sciences, what he knew only by hearsay and what the university is not taught, "A. spent a year in the countryside and in Moscow, then moved with his family in St. Petersburg. Kartashevskiy already prepared for your pet as an interpreter in the committee drafting the laws, where he was assistant editor. In St. Petersburg there was a first approximation. with literary figures - as might be expected, not those who were representatives of the progressive trends in literature. He made friends with the artist Shusherinym, . visited the Admiral Shishkov, . acquainted with many actors and writers, . even more passionately fond of the theater, . lot conversed literature, . but neither of which is not visible, . that any were searching for one or another of occupy his,
. On the political thought and say nothing, she walked past him, and he fully endorses the taste Shishkov.
Prince Shikhmatov seemed to him a great poet. We Shishkova going Derzhavin and Dmitriev, gr. Khvostov Prince Shakhovskoi and others, formed the then conservative "Interview Russian word"; literary authority old people was inviolable. In their high-style translated A. sofoklova "Philoctetes" - of course, with the French translation of La Harpe, - and "School for Husbands, by Moliere, and, on the later recognition of the author, this" comedy is partly transferred to the Russian customs, on the then prevailing barbaric custom ". During these years a. lived in Petersburg, then Moscow, then in the village. After his marriage (1816) to Olga Semyonovna Zaplatina A. tried to settle in the village. For five years he lived with his parents, but in 1820 was highlighted, getting into a fiefdom of the very Nadezhdin (Orenburg Province), which was once a battleground atrocities depicted them Kuroyedov, and moved to a year in Moscow, began to live wide open house. Resume old literary connections, make new. A. entered into a writer and literary life of Moscow and published his translation of the tenth Statira Boileau (Moscow, 1821). But the open life in Moscow could not afford. After spending a year in Moscow, and. moved, for the sake of economy, in the Orenburg province, and lived in the village until the autumn of 1826. Here A. written printed in the Journal of Europe "(1825, N 4," Epigram ") is quite small quatrain, against some kind of" journalistic Don Quixote "- perhaps, N. Field - and the idyll of "Fishing Mountain" ( "Moscow Journal", 1829, N 1) - how would anticipation of future poem "Notes on Angling," in lozhnoklassicheskoy manner, but with a lively colorful details.
During this time were printed in the Journal of Europe "(1825) as two critical articles by:" On the translation of "Phaedra" (Lobanov) and "Thoughts and comments about the theater and performing arts". In August 1826 A. parted from the village - and for all. Collisions he was here, had lived a long time in the Moscow region, but in essence remained the capital until the death of a resident. In Moscow, he met with his old patron Shishkov, now Minister of Education, and easily got from him the post of censor. On censorship of a. speak differently, there are indications worthy of faith and not very favorable. But in general it was mild; formalism could not stand his nature. Proximity with Pogodin expanded the range of literary acquaintances. "The new and loyal friends," he began Yuri Venelin, Professor P.S. Schepkin, MG. Pavlov, then NI. Nadezhdin. Update and theatrical context, was a frequent guest ms. Schepkin; visited Mochalov and other. In 1832, a. had to change the service, from the post of censor, he was dismissed for having missed in the journal I.V. Kireyevski "European of the article entitled" Nineteenth Century ". In a relationship. he had no trouble putting up, and next year he received the inspectors surveying schools, and then when it was transformed into a landmark Constantine Institute, was appointed its first Director and organizer. In 1839, Alexander, now secured a large fortune, which fell to him after his father died, left the service and, after some hesitation, did not return to her.
He wrote during this time is small, and the fact that he wrote very little: a number of theatrical reviews in the "dramatic additions" to the "Bulletin of Moscow" and "Galatea" (1828 - 1830) a few small articles. His translation of Moliere's "Miserly" went to a Moscow theater in a benefit Schepkina. In 1830, printed in the "Moscow Gazette" (unsigned), his story "The recommendation of the Minister". Finally, in 1834 in the almanac "Lucifer" appeared, also without a signature, his essay "Buran". This - the first work, speaking about the present A. Buran - the first messenger that create the right environment, that impressionable A. yielded to new influences, higher, more productive. Not from above, from literary celebrities, not outside, they went, but from below, from youth, from the inside, from the depths of Aksakov
family. Growing up the sons of Alexander, there is little similar to him in temperament and mental warehouse, thirst for knowledge, for the impulse to social influence, for ideological interests. Friendship with his sons, of course, had a value in the development of literary personality A. For the first time not only for conservative ideas, but mainly on the general way of thinking of the mature A. met with the effervescence of young minds, for the first time he saw before him a creative life, that struggle for the world, which did not introduce him or dogmas Kartashevskiy or university experience, nor the teachings of Shishkov, no vaudeville Pisarev.
Of course, the rebirth of this could not forty people, established by nature are not looking, but it is only about the impact that was supposed to produce a. close to his son, an ardent youth, with its high mental demands, with its extremely serious, with her new literary tastes. Characteristic manifestation of these tastes was the attitude of the new generation to Gogol. A. was an observer and in his early youth, . but he wrote all the time trifling poems and little articles, . because not only in the works of "high style", . direction Derzhavina, . Ozerov, . Shishkov, . but in a more realistic, . Karamzin's sentimental story delicate observation and sober truth A,
. could not find the application. He was born a little prematurely. His endowment was created for new forms of literary expression, but not in his power to create these forms of. And when he found them - perhaps not only by Gogol, but in the Captain's Daughter "and" Tales of Belkin, "- he was able to take advantage of the richness of expression, which they offered him the natural observation. Not a man. reborn, and in it was born writer. This was half of the thirties, and since then a creative. developed smoothly and fruitfully. Following the "Buranov" was launched "Family Chronicle". Already in these years was surrounded by a well-known popularity. His name enjoyed a reputation. Academy of Sciences elected him not once reviewer for awards
. He was the husband of the Council and the mind; liveliness of his mind, . supported by the proximity of youth, . gave him the opportunity to move forward if not in the socio-political or moral-religious world, . by which, . inured childhood, . he always remained faithful, . then the concrete manifestations of these general principles,
. He was tolerant and sensitive. Not being not only scientists, but not having sufficient education, alien to science, he nevertheless was a sort of moral authority for his friends, many of whom were famous scientists. Approached old age, blossoming, calm, creative. Dear oral histories A. encouraged his audience to ensure that they were written. But, temporarily leaving the "Family Chronicle", he turned to science and hunting memories, and his "Notes on Angling" (Moscow, 1847) were the first of its broad literary success. By not expecting him, and especially appreciate not like: it is simply a "left" in his notes. And it was something "away" in these years, if not from bitterness, just the mass of events, captures it, from the mass of facts of life of personal and social. The ideological struggle that captured all reached an extremely tense, and a rapidly aging. could not survive its vicissitudes. He was ill, his sight had weakened - and in the suburban hamlet Abramtsevo in angling on the idyllic thief, he was willing to forget about all the evil of the day. "Notes of a rifle hunter, Orenburg Province, came out in 1852 and caused even more rave reviews than" Angling ".
Among these reviews the most interesting famous article IS. Turgenev. Along with hunting memories and characteristics of brewing in the author's thoughts about the stories of his childhood and his immediate ancestors. Shortly after leaving the Notes Rifle Hunter "began to appear in magazines new excerpts from" Family Chronicle ", and in 1856 she got a book ... All hastened to vie with one another to pay tribute to the talent of veteran memoirist, and it is noisy unanimity of criticism was merely an echo of the huge success of the book in society. All noted the veracity of the story, the ability to combine the historical truth with artistic processing. The joys of literary success mitigated to a. hardships these past years. Material well-being of the family was shaken, Health And. getting worse. He almost lost his sight - and the dictation of stories and memories filled the time, which not so long ago gave fishing, hunting and active communion with nature. A number of works have already marked these last years of his life. First of all, "Family Chronicle" will be continued in the childhood years Bagrov's grandson ". "Early years" (published separately in 1858), uneven, less finished, less compressed than the "Family Chronicle". Some places are among the best that he had AA, but here it is no longer of the width of the picture, nor the depth image, which gives a sharply limited microcosm "Family Chronicles".
And the critics were to "Children's age without former ecstasy. A long series of minor literary works was moving forward in parallel with family memories of a. Part, as, for example, "Observations and observation a hunter to take mushrooms, they are adjacent to the natural science of his observations, in large part still is his autobiography. His "literary and theatrical memories that are included in" Other compositions "(Moscow, 1858), full of interesting information and facts of small, but infinitely far in meaning from the stories of A. The deeper significance and could be even greater if it were finished "History of my acquaintance with Gogol," demonstrates that small-minded nature of literary and theatrical memoirs A. does not mean senile decline of his talent. These last works were written in between serious illness, of which A. died April 30, 1859 in Moscow. On A. rightly been said that he grew up all my life, grew up with his time, and that his literary biography is like the embodiment of the history of Russian literature during his work. He was not independent and could not create the forms, . suitable to its simple nature, . His infinite truth, not a conservative by conviction, . not ideas, . but on feelings, . around the warehouse of his being, he bowed to the recognized traditional forms of high style - and the time he could not express themselves in a dignified manner,
. But when new forms of real stories were not only created, . and rehabilitated, . when "Belkin" and "Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka" introduced into the general consciousness, . that a simple true story no less than high literature, . that the emotional content, . hitherto cut off from her literary conventions, . has other, . more modest in appearance and more on the substance of life forms, . A,
. honestly poured into these forms is that without them should have remained a shapeless mass of oral stories and memories.
Russian Literature in the reveres him the best of their memoirists, irreplaceable cultural bytopisatelya historian, an excellent landscape painter and observer of nature, finally, the classic language. Interest in his writings not killed reader, long snapping up excerpts hunting and family memories, A., as samples inimitable clarity of thought and expression. In the first complete works of A. (Martynov, edited by IS. Aksakov
and P.A. Ephraim, St. Petersburg., 1886, 6 vols.; Latest edition Kartsova) are not included: his story "The recommendation of the Minister" and the full version of "The History of getting acquainted with Gogol" ( "Russian Archive", 1890, VIII). In the collection of essays (published. "Education", SPb., 1909, 6 vols.), Edited by A.G. Gornfeld equipped with introductory articles and notes, are not included early literary experiments, translations and reviews. From published in 1909 - with the termination of copyright law - very incomplete works of some of the popular assembly (Popov, IDSytin, Tikhomirova, etc.) are accompanied by biographical articles and commentaries. Separately, the works of A. repeatedly published.
Particularly noteworthy edition vermilion flowers ", because of their multiplicity, and the newest edition of" Memoirs of a rifle hunter "(M., 1910, edited. Professor. Menzbira) - because of scientific and illustrative material accompanying text. - See. D. Languages, "Literary activities with. T. A. "(" Historical Journal ", 1891, N 9);" Russian books "," Sources of the dictionary of Russian writers, SA. Vengerov (t. I, 1900); brochure VI. Mezhov, "C. T. A. (St. Petersburg, 1888). The most important characteristics, materials for his biography and general assessment: "IS. Aksakov
in his letters "(M., 1888, h. I); article A.S. Khomyakova and MN. Longinov a complete edition in 1886 (t. I); N. Yushkov, "Materials for the History of Russian Literature. The first student of Kazan University (Kazan, 1891); A. Grigor'ev, "My literary and moral wanderings" ( "Epoch", 1864, N 3) H. Pavlov, "A. as a censor "(" Russian Archive ", 1898, Prince. 5), VI. Panaev in the Journal of Europe "in 1867, N 3 - 4; A. In the borough, in the Journal of Europe "in 1890, N 9; In. Maikov, in The Russian Review "1891, N 6; VP. Ostrogorsky, "C. T. A. (St. Petersburg, 1891); SA. Vengerov, "Critic-Biographical Dictionary", t. I; P.N. Miliukov, "From the history of the Russian Intelligentsia" (St. Petersburg, 1903); DA. Korsakov, in Russian Thought, 1892, N 1; SA. Archangel in The Russian Review "1895, N VII - IX; KA. Field, in "Historical Messenger, 1887, N 5; Shenrok, in the Journal of the Ministry of National Education" in 1904, N VIII - X; S. Samarin, "C. T. A. and his literary works "(in the" Collected Works ", t. I, Moscow, 1878); Alferov et al, "Ten Readings in Literature (Moscow, 1895); Smirnov," Aksakovs
"(" Curriculum Library Pavlenkova ", St. Petersburg., 1895); S. Eichenwald, "Silhouettes of Russian Writers, Issue I (Moscow, 1908); A. Gornfeld, in "Russian Wealth", 1909, N 4, and "Bodrov Word" in 1909, N 9 - 10; Vetrinsky, in Collected Works Vol. Popova (1904); Sidorov, in "Collected Works" edition. IDSytin (1909). From the reviews of individual works of A. - On "Family Chronicle": PV. Annenkov ( "Memoirs and critical essays, t. II), H. G-va (Gilyarova-Platonov, "Russian Conversation" 1856, N 1), Dudyshkina (Fatherland Notes, 1856, N 4), F. Dmitrieva (Russian Messenger in 1856, N 3), P.A. Pletnev (Journal of the Ministry of National Education ", 1856, N 3); of" childhood years Bagrov's grandson: S. Shevyrov ( "Russian Conversation" 1858, N 10), A. Stankevich (Athenaeum, 1858, N 14), Dobrolyubova ( "Works", t. I, p. 344 - 386); of "Memoirs of a rifle hunter: IS. Turgenev ( "Contemporary" in 1853, t. 37; reprinted in all the complete collected works of Turgenev and Alexander). Some of the letters A. printed in complete edition in 1886, in correspondence and. S. A., in "Russian Archive" for different years. The portrait, painted Kramskoy - in the Tretyakov Gallery. A. Gornfeld.