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TverskoyAleksandr Mikhailovich

( second son of Grand Duke Michael of Yaroslav of Tver)

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Biography TverskoyAleksandr Mikhailovich
Born in 1301. Received an inheritance from his father and Hill Mikulin. As for slander of Moscow, Yuri November 22, 1318 in the Horde killed his father, Michael, A. first appears in the arena of political activity at the conclusion of peace with Yuri. In 1322 helps his older brother, Dmitri-Threatening eyes in obtaining the great reign. Yuri on the world in 1321 was from Tver, 2000 rubles for the Khan, but time did not have time to transfer them to him. Dmitry horde complaining; Yuri hurried after him to justify, but A. on the road attacked Yuri, took his coffers, including Tver, severance silver ". Yuri was forced to flee in Pskov, and Dmitri was a great reign. In 1324 Yuri again goes to the horde complaining about the Prince of Tver. Dmitri catches him and kills the eve of the death of Michael, "avenging the blood of otchu". Such an act could not remain unpunished, the more so that George was a son-Khan. A., who was at that time in the Horde, it was necessary to use every skill to save the life of his brother, to save the prince of Tver from Khan's anger, and the principality of Tver from defeat. Khan Uzbek only after a year of hesitation killed Dmitri, a great reign as Vladimirskoye granted a. Such kindness was unexpected. Prince of Tver in the eyes of the Khan were seditious, with these conditions, A. could hardly bother about the great reign, and the nature of its direct and open, also spoke not in favor of Majesty. A Nedolgo. had to be Grand Duke. According to the custom of the time, he lived not in Vladimir, and Tver. There came to him and his dolzhnitsy - Tatars. The share of Tver land and already dropped two Tatar ruin one after another (Kavgady with Michael in 1317, when Dmitry Tayanchar in 1321). The people are oppressed by the Tartars, and fed them barely suppressed anger. In 1327 in Tver was the ambassador's cousin Khan Shevkal (Chol-han Duden). He drove himself Grand Duke with his yard and took it with his retinue, "vozdvizhe great persecution on the Christians Enforced, and rip, and beat, and a reproach". Among robbing people spread unfounded rumors that Shevkal wants to kill the prince himself to take his place and put Mohammedanism. It was enough for a small spark to a rebellion broke out. August 15 Dyudko Deacon took the mare to the mash; Tatars were taken away from him, the deacon cried out for assistance, the enraged people rushed to the Tartars and killed all together with Shevkalom, did not spare even the merchants of the Horde. Thoughtless enthusiasm tverichey advantage Ivan Kalita of Moscow, Yuri's brother killed. He immediately went to the Horde, while A. no time to justify himself before the Khan. Enraged Khan gave Ivan 50 000 Tatar ratification for the punishment of Tver. A. fled to Novgorod, but was not accepted there for fear of the Tartars, and went to Pskov. Pskov, seeking to segregate from Novgorod, cheerfully admitted A. their prince. Karamzin describes a. coward because he did not die in glorious battle and not give into the hands of the Tartars to save subjects from the Tatar pogrom. But the fight Ratiu Tatar, combined with Moscow and Suzdal militia, one devastated Tver would be folly, as to go to pay homage to Khan, awaiting certain death, A. could not, because Kalita warned him, it would, moreover, an insult to people's feelings. In extant historical folk song "On Click Dudencheviche, ascribes to the princes of the people who agree with the actions of the people's. Princes "B." first started beating the Tartars. "One (of them) grabbed by the hair (Shevkala) and the other by the legs, and then tear it. There his death occurred, on anyone not find ". History tells us that death is a "found means". Complete half-century Tver region bore the marks of a pogrom Ivan Kalita. Returned Prince Constantine and Vasily Mikhailovich "sedosha in Tver in velitsey poverty and misery" ... The people in his song hid the horrors of the devastation, satisfied feeling of revenge, attributing this feeling and the princes. Kalita, having a great reign, in 1329 arrived in Novgorod, and in pursuance of the will of the Khan demanded to his AA to submit it to the Horde. Vezelay lord Moses, on behalf of all the princes persuaded A. go to the Horde voluntarily, in order not to give the Christians to destroy unholy ". A. replied: "Exactly, . I should with patience and love for all to suffer and not avenge himself sly seditious, but you (the princes) is not bad, it would be for each other brother and his brother stand, . and the Tatars not grant and all together to oppose them, . protect the Russian land and Orthodox Christianity,
. You soprotivnoe create and Tatars hover on Christians and take their betraying Tatars ". However, wanting to save the Russian land from further devastation, A. agreed to go to the Horde, but the people of Pskov not let him go. Metropolitan Theognostus, in favor Kalita, excommunicated from their church and anathematizing. A., not wishing that the people of Pskov suffered because of him, went to Lithuania. Pskov voluntarily submit to the demands of Moscow; Metropolitan acquitted him of the curse and excommunication. Kalita denounced Khan, that the enemy had fled. Lived 1 1 / 2 years in Lithuania,. was again taken to the reign of Pskov, under the auspices of the Lithuanian prince Gediminas. But A. was a pity his children and descendants who were deprived of princely power. In 1335 he sent his son Theodore to the Horde to know whether there is hope for forgiveness. In 1337, having received a favorable response, he said, with the blessing of Metropolitan Theognostus, went to pay homage to the Khan and told him: "I did a lot of harm to you, but now come to you to take from you a life or death, that God is the soul for you put ". Uzbek was satisfied with such humility A. and restored him Tver. Return A. was a blow to the Kalita, because threatened by a new struggle for the great reign. Perhaps, therefore, Uzbek and gave Tver A. I wanted to keep at bay Kalita: Tver, despite its decline, was then the only rival to Moscow. The victory left on the side of Moscow and, according to the chronicles, even a moral victory. A. found guilty only because his opponent Kalita was a man of wealth, cunning and unscrupulous. Skill and resourcefulness was a prince of Tver, and they fight for the championship lost, paid with their lives. A. arrived in Tver, after 10 years of exile, once had a quarrel with the prince of Moscow, for they do not want to obey him. Kalita went to the Horde, and they made sure that the Khan was summoned to a. and ordered to kill him, along with his son, Theodore, 29 October 1339. The bodies of the princes were brought to Tver, where they are buried in St. Savior's Cathedral. Tver left for Konstantin. - See. Borzakovskiy, "History of the Tver principality". T. Sukharev.

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  • EFC for TverskoyAleksandr Mikhailovich
  • Version history of the uprising, told here - not only. There is evidence and data that the prince led the uprising, and it occurred not only in Tver, but also in other cities of the principality. This chronicle story kept Pskov chronicles, and he was clearly drawn up in a circle from there Vasilevsky
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