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Baratynskij Evgeny Abramovich

( gifted poet)

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Biography Baratynskij Evgeny Abramovich
Born February 19, 1800, in the village of Vejle (Tambov province, Kirsanov district), and was the son of the Adjutant General, Abram A. B. and maid of honor of Alexandra Feodorovna, born Cherepanova. In childhood B. Borghese was an Italian country boys, and the boy early acquainted with the Italian language; quite mastered French, he also adopted in the house Baratynsky, and eight years old already written in French letters. In 1808 B. was taken to St. Petersburg and sent to a private German board, where he learned the German language. In 1810 his father died B., and his education took up his mother, a woman educated and intelligent. From the German pension B. joined the Corps of Pages, but stayed there for long. Having become acquainted with some of his comrades, B. involved in serious pranks, one of which, bordering on a crime (theft), led to his expulsion from the body with a denial of what to do whatever the public service, but the military - a private. This incident greatly effect on the young man, who was then 15 years, he admitted later that at that time "a hundred times was ready to take his own life". Undoubtedly, the shame experienced by the poet, influenced the formulation of its pessimistic outlook. But it would be a mistake to attach too random event of great importance in the spiritual life of B. From his childhood and youth of letters shows that he is spiritually mature very early and the first years of adult life have been inclined to look at the world through a dark glass. 8-year-old child, from school, he wrote to his mother about his schoolmates: "I hoped to find friendship, but found only cold and finicky politeness, friendship nebeskorystnuyu: all were my friends when I was an apple or something else". 11 years old, he wrote: "Is not it better to be happy ignorant than an unhappy mudretsomN Abandoning what is good in the sciences, not whether we get rid of refined porokovN" Consoling a mother, after my grandmother's death, B. in 1814, wisely observed: "I understand your grief, but think, my dear mamma, that is - the law of nature. We all are born and then, . to die, . and, . for a few hours earlier or later, . all have to leave that worthless atom dreams, . is called the land "from the Corps of Pages, . even before the discovery of the sad history, . He wrote his mother: "Is there such a refuge in the world, . but the limits of the ocean, . where human life would not be exposed to thousands of misfortunes, . where death can not be kidnapped son of his mother, . father, . Everywhere sestruN weakest trend is likely to destroy one of the transitory, . what we call our existence ",
. Of course, all these arguments were derived B. books, as he read eagerly, and many, but characteristically, it is such ideas have attracted the attention of boys and young men. In those same years, the young Pushkin Lyceum on the bench, was read Anacreon and frivolous French poet of XVIII century. After leaving the Corps of Pages, B. years he lived part of his mother in the Tambov province, part of his uncle, brother, father, Admiral Bogdan A. B., in Smolensk province, in the hamlet Podvoisky. Out of School B. introduced some knowledge of mathematics, to which he had great ability and which he never ceased to be interested in the last years of life. Living in the village, B. began to write poetry. Previously, like many other people of that time, he willingly wrote French verses, without attaching any importance to. From 1817 until we have reached Russian poetry BS, though very weak. But already in 1819 B. completely mastered the technique, and his verse has to acquire a "non-generic phrase, which he later admitted the chief merit of his poetry. In the village of Uncle B. found a small society of young people who try to live happily, and he was carried away in its fun. "We here have a good time, all singing, laughing," - he wrote to his mother. But this does not stop him adding: "The happiness of many disputes, but these disputes are reminiscent disputes the poor, the reasoning of the philosopher's stone", and again spoke about "the darkness, our common father". In 1819, AB, on the advice of relatives, went private in the Guard Jaeger Regiment in St. Petersburg. At this time, interest in B. literature is so determined that he began to seek acquaintance with the writers. He showed his poems Delvig, which they are interested, and who introduced him to Zhukovsky, Pletnev, Kuchelbecker and Pushkin. Delvig should be attributed to the influence that B. seriously began to treat his poetry and in the service of the Muses "I saw for myself a new purpose in life. "You're my spirit revived the hope of the sublime and the new" - he wrote later Delvig. In 1819, thanks to the Delvig, verse B. first appeared in the press. The following year, 1820, B. was promoted to noncommissioned officers and transferred to Neyshlotskiy Regiment, located in Finland, to strengthen Kyumeni and its surroundings. A five-year stay in Finland has left the deepest impression in the B. and vividly reflected in his poetry. Impressions from the "harsh edges" must he some of the best for its lyrical poems ( "Finland", "Waterfall") and the beautiful poem "Ed". Initially B. conducted in Finland, life is very secluded, quiet, calm, measured,. All his company was limited to two or three officers, whom he met at the regimental commander, Colonel Lutkovskaya, an old friend of the family B. and their neighbors by name, who took him to his house a young non-commissioned officer. Subsequently, he became friendly with NV. Putyato and AI. Mukhanova, adjutant general of the Finnish-governor, AA. Zakrevskogo. His friendship with Putyato preserved in all their lives. Putyata described the appearance of B., as he saw it the first time: "He was thin, pale, and his features expressed profound sadness". In autumn 1824, thanks to the application Putyata, B. was allowed to travel to Helsinki and consist of the hull at the headquarters of General Zakrevskogo. In Helsingfors B. expected life of a noisy and restless. To this period of his life is the beginning of his hobbies п-.пг. Zakrevskii (wife of General AA. Zakrevskogo), the one that Pushkin called "lawless comet in the circle to the number of luminaries, and to which hardly anyone approaching without having to succumb to the charms of its original identity. This love has brought B. a lot of painful experiences, reflected in his poems such as "I enthusiastically pronounced," "Fairy", "No, rumor has deceived you," "Justification," "We drink in the sweet poison of love", "I'm reckless, and no wonder "" How many of you in a few days ". However, in B. passion is always at odds with the cold rationality, and not by chance that he is equally fond of mathematics and poetry. In one poem (although borrowed from a guy), he, for example, gives advice: "Near the beloved tamed the fiery desires impatience," because "we are their happiness, and reducing harmful delight". And in a letter to Putyata B. wrote bluntly: "I hasten to it. You will suspect that I am somewhat fascinated: a few, true, but I hope that the first few hours of solitude will give me back sanity. Write a few elegies and sleep in peace ". We must, however, added that he B. once wrote: "What a miserable experience premature fetus - the heart, avid passions, but unable to indulge in one constant passion, and lost in the crowd of boundless desires! Such is the M. and my ". Helsingfors B. had to return to the regiment in Kyumen and there, in the spring of 1825, Putyata brought him an order for production of its officers in. According Putyata, this B. "very happy and revive". Shortly after Neyshlotskiy regiment was assigned to St. Petersburg to keep guards. In St. Petersburg B. resumed his literary acquaintances. In the autumn of that year, B. returned with the regiment in Kyumen, traveled briefly to Helsinki, then retired and moved to Moscow. "The fate of superimposed chains fell off of my hands," he wrote on this subject. In Moscow, June 9, 1826, B. married Nastasya Lvovna Engelhard, at the same time he enlisted in the Land Survey Office, but soon resigned. Even before his marriage from Moscow B. Putyata wrote: "In Finland, I experienced everything that was alive in my heart. Her beautiful, though gloomy mountains looked like the old my fate, and grim, but at least, quite abundant in distinctive colors. Fate, which I foresee will be similar to the monotonous plains of the Russian ... "To a large extent B. was right, and his life after 1826, becomes monotonous. His wife was not beautiful, but different mind bright and delicate taste. Her restless nature caused many hardships for most B. and influenced by the fact that many of his friends moved away from him. In a peaceful family life is gradually smoothed out in the B. all that was in him a violent, rebellious, and he confessed himself: "Merry, I locked the door, I had enough of their violent happiness, and replaced him is now a decent, quiet sensuality". Only a few poetic confessions B. we learn that he could not always the whole force of his intellect to win their passions. In the poems in 1835, we see that this time he experienced some sort of new love, which he calls the "delusion of the soul of his painful". Sometimes he tries to convince himself that remained the same, saying: "I poured my glass, poured, poured!" Remarkably, finally, the poem "Goblet" in which B. tells about the "orgies," which he arranged by himself, when the wine is re-awakened in him "the revelation of hell". Foreign his life was no apparent disruption. He lived then in Moscow, . then her estate, . in the hamlet Muranova (near Talica, . near Trinity-Sergiev Lavra), . then in Kazan, . was busy farming, . sometimes traveled to St. Petersburg, . where in 1839 met with Lermontov, . society was appreciated as an interesting and sometimes brilliant conversationalist, and in the silence he worked on his poetry, . finally came to the conclusion, . that "in light there is nothing sensible poetry,
. Spend much time in Moscow, B. made friends here with a circle of Moscow writers, with I.V. Kireyevsky, linguistic, Khomyakov, Sobolev, Pavlov. Celebrity B., as a poet, began after the publication in 1826, his poems "Ed" and "feasts" (a book, with interesting preface by the author) and, in 1827, the first collection of lyric poems. In 1828 appeared the poem "The Ball" (along with "Count Nulin Pushkin), in 1831 -" Concubine "(" Gypsy "), in 1835 - the second edition of small poems (in two parts), with a portrait. Contemporary critics were to verse B. rather superficially, and the literary circle of enemies Pushkin (magazine "Well-intentioned and others) is pretty hard to attack him if exaggerated" romanticism ". But the credibility of Pushkin himself, highly tsenivshego B. talent, was still so high that, despite the voices of critics, B. was a general acquiescence recognized as one of the best poets of his time and became a welcome contributor to all the best magazines and anthologies. But B. wrote little for a long time working on his poetry and often radically recasting the already printed. A true poet, he was by no means a writer, to write anything other than poetry, he needs the external cause. For example, out of friendship to the young AN. Muravyov, he has written an excellent analysis of a collection of his poems Tavrida ", proving that it could be an interesting critic. The matter referred to criticism of his poem "concubine", he wrote "antikritiku" somewhat dry, but in which there is a very remarkable thoughts about poetry and art in general. When, in 1831, I.V. Kireyevsky, with whom B. made friends close, undertook the publication "European", B. began to write for him in prose, writing, among other things, the story of "Ring" and is ready to debate it with magazines. When the "European of the" was banned, B. Kireevsky wrote: "I'm with you lost a strong inducement to the works of verbal". People who knew B., say according to what his poems are not quite "express that world of fine, which he wore in the depths of his soul". "Spout their intimate thoughts in a friendly conversation, lively, diverse, incredibly exciting, filled with happy words and meaningful thoughts ... B. often satisfied with living sympathy of his close circle, less worrying about possible far-reader ". Thus, in the surviving letters B. scattered many sharp criticisms of contemporary writers - the feedback that he never tried to make the property press. Very curious, incidentally, the comments B. the various works of Pushkin, to whom he was when he wrote, quite frankly, are not always treated fairly. B., . sure, . aware of the greatness of Pushkin, . In a letter to him personally flattering offered him "to build a Russian poetry to the degree between the poetry of all peoples, . which Peter the Great erected between the powers of Russia ", . but never missed an opportunity to note the, . something to read Pushkin weak and imperfect (see, . example, . B reviews,
. of "Eugene Onegin" and Pushkin's fairy tales in letters to Kireevsky). The later criticism of directly accusing B. in envy of Pushkin and suggests that Pushkin's Salieri decommissioned with B. There is reason to think that in the poem "Autumn" B. meant Pushkin, . when talking about "rushing buystvenno Hurricane, . which all of nature responds, . comparing with him, "the voice of, . vulgar voice, . broadcaster general thoughts ", . in contrast, "the broadcaster general thoughts" pointed, . that "there will recall that the verb, . that passionate earth moved ",
. The news of the death of Pushkin caught B. Moscow is in the days when he worked on "Autumn". B. threw a poem, and it remained nedovershennym. In 1842, AB, while already the star constellation of disparate, published a slender volume of his new poems: "Twilight", dedicated Prince P.A. Vyazemsky. This publication is delivered B. extremely disappointing. His tone offended at all the critics of this book, but especially article Belinsky. Belinsky thought that B. In his poetry rose against science, against the education. Of course, it was a misunderstanding. For example, in a poem: "While a man's nature was not tortured B. only developed the idea of his youthful letters: "Is not it better to be happy ignorant than an unhappy sage". In the poem "The Last Poet", he protested against the materialist, which begins to be determined at that time (end of the 30's and early 40-ies) in European society and the future development of which B. shrewdly guessed. He protested against the exclusive pursuit of "vital and useful", and certainly not against learning in general, whose interests it is Used. always been near and dear. B. did not object to criticism of Belinsky, but a monument to his mood of that time left a remarkable poem "The planting of the forest". B. said to him, that he "flew the soul to new families (t. e. to the younger generations), that he had "all the good feelings to serve them a voice, but received no reply from them. Almost directly Belinsky have in mind the words that he, who crush the souls of my outburst, he could call me a bloody battle "(t. e. he could seek to refute it is mine, BS, ideas, not a substitute for their alleged hostility to science), but, according to BA, the opponent chose to "dig holes everywhere concealed beneath the ditch" (t. e. fight it unjust ways). B. even finishes poems threat at all after abandon poetry. "I rejected the strings" - he says. But such vows, if given the poets, are not enforced they will never. In autumn 1843 B. exercised their long-held desire - has made travel abroad. Winter months of 1843 - 44 years he spent in Paris, where he met with many French writers (A. de Vigny, MцLrimцLe, both Thierry, M. Chevalier, Lamartine, W. Nodier and others). To acquaint the French with his poetry, B. translated several of his poems into French. In the spring of 1844 B. Marseille went through the sea in Naples. Before leaving Paris B. felt unwell, and doctors warned him from the influence of the sultry climate of southern Italy. Hardly Baratynskij arrived in Naples, as with the NL. Baratynskij became one of those painful attacks (probably nervous), which caused so much trouble to her husband and all others. This is so affected BS that he has suddenly increased headaches, which he often suffered, and the next day, June 29 (July 11) in 1844, he died suddenly. His body was transported to St. Petersburg and buried in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in the Lazarev cemetery. - Features poetry B. is best defined Pushkin, saying: "He's the original - for thought. It would be original and everywhere, for thinking on their own, properly and independently, whereas feels strong and deep ". "The poetry of thought" - here, indeed, the most general definition, which can give poetry B. He himself had even considered this property is the hallmark of poetry in general, complaining: "Everyone thought so thought artist poor word!" In his early poems B. develops a pessimistic view of life which he has with his childhood. His basic proposition that "in this life" can not find the "bliss direct": "Heavenly gods do not share them with earthly children Prometheus". According to this in the life of B. sees two shares: ", or hope and excitement (r. e. painful anxiety), il hopelessness and quiet (calm). Therefore Truth invites him to teach him ardent, "Otradnoe dispassion". So he wrote a hymn of death, calls it as "welcome", recognizes the insensitivity of the dead "blessed" and glorifies, finally, "The latest death, which calms the whole being. Building on these ideas, B. gradually came to the conclusion of the equivalence of all forms of terrestrial life. He begins to seem that not only "and fun and sadness" gave the gods "of identical wing" (dual number = wings), but that the equal good and evil. Latest expressed them in his poem "Blessed be the holy signaling, where it vozvestitelyu holy contrasted" any unjust "(t. e. people), exposes us to bend the hearts of human, because "the two areas, lights and darkness, we seek to explore as well". These thoughts are expressed in verse of the second period of the B. and in his remarkable poems. Characteristically, the poem's hero B. - Almost exclusively men "fallen", such "pious Ed", . giving herself to her seducer, the officer, this is Nina ( "Ball"), . transition from one lover to another, such is Eletskii ( "Gypsy"), . form an "unfortunate Code debauchery, . willful rules ", . and especially his girlfriend "concubine"-Gypsy,
. Find the spark alive in the souls of the fallen, to show that they are capable of noble feelings, make them attractive to the reader - such is the challenge presented by a B. in his poems. The last period of the B. characterized by its treatment of religion. Another of the early poems, . in full accord with his worldview, . he exclaimed: "Oh man! assuring, . Finally, . not for you nor the wisdom, . neither omniscience "But if the" omniscience "is not available, . whether to seek a "semi-knowledge" N from this question arises from B,
. skepticism about the human truth, it begins to seem that the phenomenon yudolnogo world has "all the Gazette, that all human wisdom can open only what has long been concluded in the strict sense of folk sayings". Such a range of ideas has led B. to the "justification of Providence", he teaches, . that in our lives, only that "unharmed", . Who fifth opera for a living faith ", he wrote a prayer, . which begs God to give him strength for his "strict paradise", and finally, . in one of the last poems, . written during the journey from Marseilles to Naples, . pointedly observes: "A lot of questions I decided to rebel, . before hand Marseilles sailors lifted anchor, . symbol of hope ",
. However, we do not have to know what would solve for B. this "last vihrevraschene" thoughts and feelings: the sudden death did not let him finish the full development of his poetry. Regarding the form of poetry AB, then, for all the perfection of finishing, it suffers from artificiality. Language B. not easy, he loves the strange expression, readily uses Slavonicisms and neologisms in the archaic manner, so that the meaning of other expressions of B. have to guess ( "inside his ever you are not conveyed by the sounds of earth", t. e. words can not tell the depths of the soul, the poet - "part of the feast of the intangible powers, t. e. the world's dreams, and t. n.). Tone B. almost always elevated, sometimes vysokoparen. A special difficulty is a bizarre arrangement of words, which is why people like B. (He wrote, for example: "Prejudice - he is a piece of ancient truth, the temple fell, but the ruins of his descendant language is not guessed, t. e. - A descendant of the language he had seen through the ruins). Finally, the difficult and she brevity, that the extreme conciseness of speech, which sought to B. (he says, for example, about heaven, limitless, sorrow close). However, if you get used to these features the poetry of BS, if carefully look into the warehouse of his speech, called accuracy of his expressions, the accuracy of his epithets, its energy is compressed sentences. Y B. little poems, captivating music, poetry, to appreciate his muse, his poems have not only feel, but to understand, applicable to his poetry that Prince P.A. Vyazemskij said about him as a person: "We need to interrogate, so to speak, gimlet this latent spring to get out of it clean and light jet". In addition to those publications in which the verses B. appeared during his lifetime (these publications are listed above), his writings were published in 1869 (Kazan), 1883 (AM) and 1884 (Kazan). Best of the editions - 1869 and 1884, as they gathered extremely important variants of poems B. Some of the poems, not included in these publications are reprinted in the publication of the North "in 1894 (St. Petersburg), and several new poems, based on manuscripts given in the edition of 1900 (Kazan). Even some of the poems and prose articles to be not reprinted in the collected works, give me a "Russian Archive" in 1900. Currently in the publication "Academic Libraries" is preparing a new edition of the works of AB, which should collect all their written. O B. cm. Notes Pushkin, Pletnev, AND. Kireyevski, Prince P.A. Vyazemsky, Galakhova (Fatherland Notes, 1844), Longinov (bibliography, "Russian Archives", 1864), SA. Andrew ( "The philosophical currents of Russian poetry", St. Petersburg., 1896, and "Literary Reading"), H. Kotlyarevskogo In. Bryusov ( "Russian Archive", 1901 - 1903 period), C. Vengerov ( "critical-Biographical Dictionary", t. II), Belinsky (op. edited by Vengerov, t. VII, notes editor, page. 626 - 637). Bryusov.

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Photos of Baratynskij Evgeny Abramovich
Baratynskij Evgeny Abramovich

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