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Vitus Bering (Ivan Ivanovich)

( Captain-Commander, the first Russian navigator)

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Biography Vitus Bering (Ivan Ivanovich)
photo Vitus Bering (Ivan Ivanovich)
Captain-Commander, the first Russian navigator, whose name is called the strait separating Asia from America, and Kamchatka or Bobrovo Sea. - Born in 1680, Mr.. in Denmark, in the Russian naval service came in 1704, with the rank of sub-lieutenant. Inviting him, Peter I is based on representations of him Sievers and Senyavin, claiming that he was "in the East Indies and was the usage knows. By 1723, Mr.. journals of the Admiralty Board is a resolution on the resignation of the Bering, . he asked, . not having achieved the rank of captain of the first rank, but next year the Emperor ordered the board again invited to the service of the Bering and give him the rank of captain 1-st rank,
. Since then, Behring has always served the Russian Navy until his death and all their activities devoted to addressing the issue, or not connecting Asia with America. Since this matter and requested to equip the expedition first went to Peter I by Dutch scientists, during his stay in Holland in 1717, the same request was repeated the Paris Academy of Sciences. December 23, 1724, Mr.. Peter ordered to fit out an expedition under the command of Bering and personally wrote the following statement: "1) be in Kamchatka, or in another place there to make one or two boats with decks, . 2) the add-on bots near the ground, . which goes to North and aspiration (Inasmuch as the end thereof not know), . It seems America is the land of, . 3) to seek, . where onaya consorted with America: and to get to a city of European possessions, or if you see a ship of the European, . found out from him, . as aforesaid called bush and take the letter and by visit the bank and get a true statement and, . staked, . come syudy ",
. In January 1725, Mr.. expedition received then the name of the first Kamchatka, went to Okhotsk, where he arrived only in July 1727. A short here with food and the courts, the expedition on Aug. 22 came from the Okhotsk and two weeks later arrived in Bolsheretsk (Kamchatka). Hence, by land went to Nizhnekamchatsk, where he arrived March 11, 1728, consuming the entire route (in the 883 cent.) About 2 months. Loaded with food in Nizhnekamchatsk bot "Sv. Gabriel, built in the same Bering July 13, 1728, Mr.. out of the mouth of the Kamchatka river to the sea, holding on to a northerly direction. After more than a month at sea between the shores unknown to him, . Bering reached, . Finally, . 67 б¦ 18 'north latitude and, . seeing here, . on the testimony of the Chukchi, . that further extends to the west coast and that, . therefore, . "Asia can not connect with America", . considered it his mission accomplished and, . with the consent of all members of the expedition, . feared "accidentally hit the ice", . retreated,
. September 2, 1728, Mr.. He was already on the estuary. Kamchatka, which spent the winter, and 5 June the following year went to the East, but did not meet at 200 versts (according to his calculations) away from the coast of Kamchatka earth, turned back, rounded the Cape of Shoulder and July 3, went to Bol'sheretsk. After 20 days he was already in the mouth. Hunt, whence went to St. Petersburg. Here he presented the government with its magazine, maps, and two sentences that expressed the idea of equipping a new expedition for the study of northern and north-eastern coast of Siberia. Admiralty Board, which reviewed his journal and maps, although not entirely trust the discovery of Bering, however, because of "difficulties of the expedition, to obtain for him the rank of Captain-Commander. Were approved by the Senate and the Admiralty Board, and "suggestions" Bering. December 28, 1732, Mr.. His Majesty was allowed to appoint a second Kamchatka expedition to explore the shores of the Arctic Ocean from the Northern Dvina River to the East to the strait between the continents. The expedition was divided into several units, in which one commander Behring. He spoke from St. Petersburg in early 1733, but due to various obstacles might come out in the sea of Okhotsk only in September 1740. Arriving in the harbor of Petropavlovsk, he has remained here to spend the winter. June 4, 1741, Mr.. Bering sailed on 2 courts: "Peter and Paul (one commanded Chirikov) in an easterly direction. Soon the storm separated Court. Bering discovered several islands (Aleutian, Commander and others) and one of them crashed. This was the island Avacha, now called the Bering. With some difficulty landed travelers, not knowing where they are almost entirely devoid of victuals, and suffered from various diseases. Among many others died and Behring on Dec. 8, 1741, Mr.. The grave of Bering was placed a wooden cross, renewed in 1880 and in 1866. his monument in Petropavlovsk. - Wed: "The merits of Peter the Great on the part of the spread of geographical knowledge" ( "Notes of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society", t. III); VN. Berhe "The first voyage of Russians", his "Life of Bering (" Russian Archive ", 1823, Prince. VI); Sokolov Bering and Chirikov ( "Northern Bee", 1849, N 98 - 99); "The First Kamchatka Expedition" ( "Notes Hydrographic Department, t. VIII, and Fatherland Notes, 1851, N 3); Vakhtin "First Toilers of the Sea" (St. Petersburg, 1890).

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