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Bestuzhev-Ryumin Konstantin

( historian)

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Biography Bestuzhev-Ryumin Konstantin
photo Bestuzhev-Ryumin Konstantin
(1829 - 1897)
Born in the hamlet Kudreshkah, Gorbatovskaya district of Nizhny Novgorod Province. He grew up under the strong influence of the Gospel, "Iliad," "Virgin of Orleans" Zhukovsky, "Eugene Onegin", Plutarch and Karamzin. The influence of the latter on the BA-Rumina was very large: on the History of the State of Rossiyskogo "He studied" high morals "," love their native land, love good, hate evil, to despise falsehood, flattery and deceit "(biographies and features, 205 ). Nizhny Novgorod school and the Alexander Institute BS-Ryumin must not so much factual knowledge as the elaboration of literary tastes, the habit of serious reading, one of the teachers, PI. Melnikov, the future author of "In the woods, secured in him a love of historical knowledge. In this time-BA Ryumin delirious George Sand, lived under the spell of Belinsky, immersed in Pushkin, who became his favorite poet ever. First published work BS-Rumina were critical reviews of Fonvizin, Ozerov, Krylov and the "Selected Passages from Correspondence" Gogol (Nizhni Novgorod Provincial Gazette, 1847). Student years at Moscow University, Faculty of Law (1847 - 1851), coincided with the reaction in public life and with the brilliant development of the professors at the University. Lectures Redkin, Krylova, Moroshkina, Kavelin Solovyov, Kudryavtseva, Granovsky, Shevyrov, Buslaeva, Leontiev, Katkov, work under the guidance Pogodina identified all intellectual interests, B., Rumina. However, the most abundant large scientific values was disadvantageous for the BA-Rumina side: in the cycle of mutual hostility, moreover, strong and distinct areas to understand the young mind was not easy. Not quite acceded to any school, BN-Ryumin felt the impact of all that later largely stopped him work out in the assessment of the Russian historical life of its own positive system. Compliant by nature, he and the cardinal question of time - a dispute "Westerners" and "Slavophiles" - not take a position. In this regard, perhaps the most powerful influence has had on him Granovsky, . Natura highly artistic, . surprisingly elegant, . harmonic, . tender, . concentrated: Granovsky inherent desire for reconciliation of extremes, . conviction, . that "the time to formulate ideas and opinions for us is not ripe", . and the resulting slowness in the decision "to join the ranks of which any of the warring among themselves literary parties" (Cavelin) - all this characterizes the scientific and social activities of BA-Rumina, . always proceeded from the idea, . that "only versatile outlook may lead to the truth",
. This fear of unilateralism and was the cause of the pallor of his scientific "I". Financial insecurity and dependence on odd jobs for a long time hindered BS-Ryumin, on leaving the university, go to the road, which entailed his vocation. Consistently teacher in the family Chicherins (1851 - 54), in the cadet corps (1854 - 56), assistant editor of the Moscow Gazette, edited by VF. Korsch (1856 - 59), . one of the editors terminate on the 2 nd issue of the Moscow Reviews "(1859), . after moving to St. Petersburg permanent member of Fatherland Notes (1859 - 1865), . Editor of Russian and Slavic history in the "Encyclopedic Dictionary" (1861 - 53) and "Memoirs of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society" (1863 - 64), . it only in 1865, . occupied the chair of Russian history at St. Petersburg University (1865 - 84), . was able to fully devote himself to scientific work,
. Contrary Solovyov, . Kostomarov, . later Klyuchevskoi, . Lecture-BS Rumina were not so much the image of the past under certain angle and the lighting of the totality of the phenomena of historical life of the Russian people, . much critical analysis of others' views and theories,
. Scientific skepticism and skeptical attitude to the theories in general are in his hand in hand with caring desire to protect his audience from the temptation jurare in verba magistri. The basis of his teaching has placed a strict examination of sources, analysis of others' opinions, especially controversial, careful weighing of conflicting theories. The very first work, nominated him, and prepared the way for him to chair, are characterized primarily historiographical. These are great articles: "The current state of Russian history as a science" ( "Moscow Observer", . 1859, . N 1), . on the writings Kavelina (Fatherland Notes, . 1860, . N 4, . 6, . 8), . history Solovyov (Fatherland Notes, . 1860, . N 9, 1861, . N 1), . "Slavophil doctrine and its fate in Russian literature" ( "Fatherland Notes, . 1862, . N 2, . 3, . 5),
. The main work of BA-Rumina - "Russian history" (t. I, St. Petersburg., 1872; t. II, No.. I, . Chapter I - IX, . Petersburg., . 1885; chapter X 2 of the first volume - "Review of events from the death of King John Vasilyevich before the election to the throne of Mikhail Romanov" - "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", . 1887, . N 7, . 8), . - Originally conceived, . grew out of lectures and aimed to "present the results, . obtained by the Russian historical science in fifty years of its development, . indicate ways, . which were obtained and extracted these results, . and, . however, . enter the circle of sources, . currently available scientific activities ",
. By the idea of historical justice and fairness due to the desire to "give Pobol materials and guidelines for the formation of its own judgments". Sources multilaterally evaluation and treatment of them, bibliography occupy a prominent place in the book, and the author himself avoids possible to express their own opinion. Admission, by virtue of which the teacher himself was kept in the shadows, and advanced forward the view of others, a school could not, especially as a basic understanding of Russian history, BI-Ryumin was, despite some differences not only followed Solovyov. Not expressing a new, . original thought, . BA-Ryumin, . however, . vividly expressed, . consistently met and introduced into the consciousness of the principle of a comprehensive study of the phenomena of the past, . strictly scientific objectivism, . support which are pre-criticism and careful analysis of the facts, in which his merit and the right to a definite place in Russian science,
. Giving a presentation of the facts first home, . beliefs and mental development of each era, . BA-Ryumin virtually confirmed its position on the importance of critical examination of sources extensive and valuable work "On the composition of the Russian chronicles until the end of the fourteenth century.", . Petersburg., . 1868 (thesis, . gave the author a doctorate in Russian history, . elucidated in detail and justified Stroeva old thesis about the ancient Russian chronicles as a collection, . vaults),
. Treasure the basis of historical criticism and comprehensive analysis, . BA-Ryumin, . with huge memory and vast erudition (he was a great connoisseur of the Bible, . Dante, . Shakespeare, . Russian Literature, . old and new), . possessed a talent presentation: slim concept, . living, . bright images, . heartfelt performance gave him a great attraction to university lectures,
. In 1877 - 82 years of BA-Ryumin took an active part in the work of the Slavonic Benevolent Society, . first as one of its employees, . later as chief executive; at the same time with all his heart he gave to the Higher Women's Courses, . based at its close participation (1878) and to secure for itself the name "Bestuzhev",
. Serious illness completely undermined his health and put an end to a productive work. Since 1884. BA-Ryumin had to give up the professorship, and from social activities. Election to the ordinary academics (1890) was a tribute to his former services: a large trace of himself in the Academy of Sciences, he has not left. The most outstanding works of AB-Rumina (except the above noted), . which are drawn more fully the strengths and weaknesses of it as a scientist: 1) four popular stories (the first two under the headline: "Pro at the former Holy Russia"): a) "On the Baptism of Rus, . of St. Vladimir, . of his sons, and the monastery Crypt ", . Petersburg., . 1864; b) "On the bad times and the terrible Tartars Mamay", . Petersburg., . 1864; c) Prince Vladimir,
. Vsevolod. Michael III and his descendants, . Monomakh, . or the times of princely trouble and strife ", . Petersburg., . 1865) "On that, . as growing Muscovy and made the Russian empire ", . Petersburg., . 1866; 2) "inaugural lecture in the course of Russian history" (Fatherland Notes, . 1865, . N 2) 3) "inaugural lecture to a public course in Russian history" ( "Zarya", . 1870, . N 2) 4) "A few words about the poetic nature reproductions of Ivan the Terrible" ( "Zarya", . 1871, . N 3) 5) "The causes of different views on the Peter the Great in Russian science and Russian Society" (Journal of the Ministry of National Education ", . 1872, . N 6) 6) "What does Russian history" ( "Ancient and New Russia", . 1878, . N 1), 7) "Biographies and characteristics,
. Tatishchev, Schletzer, Karamzin, Pogodin, Solovyov, Eshevsky, Hilferding, St. Petersburg., 1882, 8) analysis of the History of Russian national consciousness to the historical monuments and scientific writings, M.O. Koyalovich (Journal Low. Nar. Pros. ", 1885, N 1), 9)" The theory of cultural-historical types "(" Russian Messenger ", 1888, N 5), 10 and 11) biography of Tsar Ivan the Terrible and the article about the Russian chronicles in the 82-volume" Encyclopedic dictionary "Brockhaus-Efron, 12) biography NM. Karamzin in the biographical dictionary of Russian officials, Vol. Imperial Russian Historical Society, 13) "Letters KN. BA-Rumina on Time of Troubles ", St. Petersburg., 1898. He belongs to the translation of "The History of Civilization in England", in Tiblena (St. Petersburg, 1863 - 1865). - Detailed biography of BS-Ryumin with a list of works (425 N) and an indication of literature about it, cm. y E. Shmurlo, "Essay on the life and scientific activities KN. BA-Rumina. 1829 - 1897 ", Yur'ev, 1899. - Wed. Memoirs KN. BA-Rumina (before 1860), published by Acad. LN. Maikov ", St. Petersburg., 1900. E. Shmurlo

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