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BOGDANOVICH Hippolyte Fyodorovich

( Famous poet.)

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Biography BOGDANOVICH Hippolyte Fyodorovich
Born December 23, 1743, Mr.. in m. Perevolochna (Poltava province). Even as a child Bogdanovich, as he reports in his autobiography, showed a tendency to "reading books, drawing, music and versification, which especially get a taste of the reading of poetic works of Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov". At the eleventh year he was sent to Moscow for a writ of service "and there is recorded in the College of Justice cadet. President of the Board allowed him to simultaneously engage in a mathematical school at the Senate office. Although Bogdanovich "for success in mathematics was considered among the first non-students", but its more attracted to poetry, and especially drama. One 15-year-old Bogdanovich was with the intention to enter the scene in the then director of the Moscow theater Kheraskov in the words of Karamzin, . KHERASKOV persuaded the cadets in the "embarrassingly acting rank for a noble man, and recorded his listener University, . took him in her house,
. Bogdanovich learn a foreign language and passed the "rules of language and versification". In 1760, Mr.. He began to publish in the journal is published with the University "Useful amusement, his first attempt at writing, which were, even by contemporaries," far from perfect ". In 1761, . after education, . Bogdanovich was appointed warden in university classes, . with the rank of officer, . a year later transferred to the commission solemn preparations for the coronation of Catherine II, . requested to write an inscription for the triumphal gate,
. In 1763, at the request of "benefactress" E.R. Dashkova, Bogdanovich goes translator in the state graph PI. Panina. At the same time, . with the personal participation of Princess, . Bogdanovich publishes a magazine for six months "innocent exercise", . where, . except for small articles and original poems, . a translation of the poem "On the destruction of Lisbon" Voltaire, . sang "wisdom" for Catherine, . that the "golden age gave behold", . and dedikoval "Count Panin translation (from French)" Little War, . described a Major in the service of King of Prussia ",
. In 1765, . while serving as a translator for Foreign College in St. Petersburg, . Bogdanovich published his poem "purely bliss", . three songs, . dedicated to the heir to Pavel Petrovich, . and transfers the three-act comedy of Voltaire "Nanina, ,
. Time from 1766 to 1769. Bogdanovich holds in Dresden, as Secretary of our Embassy. In St. Petersburg, . during the most productive period of his authorship (1769 - 1775), . Bogdanovich has translated various articles of the French encyclopedia, . "Reduction of the project of perpetual peace" (from Saint-Pierre), . "The history of ex-changes in the Roman Republic" Abbot Vertota, . published a collection of his original and translated poems under the title "Lyra", . "was above watching" for publication "St. Petersburg,
. Gazette and, finally, in the words of Karamzin, "put on the altar of Grace" his "darling", conceived by him in when he was abroad, and some places of the poem, of course, inspired by the paintings of the Dresden Gallery. The success of the poem was great. Even before the printing of it has spread to multiple lists. The Empress, on a story by Karamzin, "Darling read with pleasure and said that a writer". For her and the court, he tried to manifest signs of his respect and said he memorized the place noticed monarch. Then existing poets wrote epistles, odes, and madrigals in honor and glory of the creator Darling ". After "Darling" Bogdanovich not invented anything remarkable even by the notions of the time. Between 1775 and 1790 years Bogdanovich, . already with neglect, . seemingly reluctantly, . or drowsy genius ", . I wrote part of "Historical images of Russia" (brought only before 1015), . Joy Darling, . lyrical comedy, . posleduemuyu ballet, . drama "Slavs" a small number of fine poems, . published in "L'amateur Russian Word",
. Pursuant to the will of the empress, Bogdanovich has collected and published a Russian proverb, shifting them into poetry, and drama composed by 3 little pieces on the theme of the same invented sayings. "Garland Darling," according to Karamzin, "remained the only head Bogdanovich". In 1780, Mr.. Bogdanovich was appointed to the newly established state archives, and from 1788 g. It consisted of the chairman before the release in 1795, Mr.. resignation. In 1796, Mr.. Bogdanovich stayed in Sumy, where she prepared to marry, but soon, for unclear reasons, was forced to part with his fiancee. In 1798, Mr.. Bogdanovic moved to Kursk, where a lengthy ode, the former had his swan song, welcomed the accession to the throne of Alexander I. Bogdanovich, died Jan. 6, 1803, Mr.. Placed on the grave Bogdanovich in 1834. monument, in the form of a statue of Psyche ( "Darling"), in 1894. was renewed and moved to the city park. Death Bogdanovich made a strong impression on contemporary society. Editors' Messenger of Europe "(1803, N 3) announced a competition for the best epitaph Bogdanovich. In dealing with his memory verse grateful contemporaries called Bogdanovich's favorite muses and graces and even "genius", "so cute" glorifying Darling.
Zephyr him a feather from their wings gave,
Cupid drove his hand: he wrote to Darling, --
said Plat. Beketov in the caption to the portrait Bogdanovich. Bogdanovich's famous poem - a work is not original. Its content is drawn from the novel La Fontaine's "Les amours de Psyche", in turn, drawn from a satirical novel by Apuleius' Golden Ass. Ancient myth, depicting a Platonist Apuleius in allegorical images, the fate of the human soul, purified by severe trials, then repeatedly reproduced in painting, sculpture and poetry. At the end of XVII century Lafontaine has turned religious and poetic allegory in a witty and piquant story. In the "Jovian time", - reads a poem Bogdanovich - lived a wise king with three beautiful daughters, of whom the youngest, my dear, was so strikingly beautiful that it not only death but also the cupids and marshmallows, leaving Venus, "particularly adored ". Offended goddess ordered her son Cupid "for daring Darling order postraschat". Darling suddenly leave all the "lover". Parents 'unhappy' daughter turned to the oracle and, according to his "muddle-headed" dictum, taken away Darling "at the top of an unknown mountain and left there to wait for the monster, whom the fate of the doomed it in marriage. Invisible Zephyr brings Darling in the magnificent palace of the Amur, where the "shelf spirits" and it serves to entertain her "pleasures of paradise". Her husband Cupid, without opening their own kind, and visited her under cover of night or in dark cave. At the request darling Zephyr takes it to her sisters, who, breathless with envy, "Darling persuaded to kill during sleep mysterious" monster ". In the light of the lamps Darling sees "the place of the asp" sleeping god of love and admiring them in silent ecstasy, accidentally spills hot oil on him. Cupid pain wakes and leaves her. Finding himself on the very same mountain where she was abandoned by his parents, Darling desperately trying to take his own life, all kinds of deaths! But the unseen force whenever it saves. After many ordeals Darling comes to Venus, which condemns it to the ordeal, "to how can lead to nausea". Incidentally, she was ordered to go to Hell to Proserpina, and bring to it "nekaky" indoor pot. Instigated by curiosity, Darling reveals pot; immediately flies out black smoke covering the face and chest Darling indelible blackness. Darling in despair hides from everyone else in the cave. But Cupid revenge evil sisters, my dear, is to her in a cave, is reconciled with Darling, announced in literacy for general information that
. Act creates a beautiful view of the time thin,
. External ceases to shine in the sight of it as smoke
. But the beauty of the soul, nothing changes:
. She always united and all the charms
Venus returns "daughter in law" for the sufferings former beauty, and the gods join Psyche and Cupid forever. The above quatrain, according to the author of "Darling", should formulate a lofty morality of the poem, which lies at the basis of the ancient myth. But this idea does not fit either with the tone or the details of the content of playful poems. Inconsistency in the idea of the work and its core of tissue from the current point of view - the biggest drawback. But Bogdanovich's contemporaries did not notice in the poem of those weaknesses, which indicated a later critic. Its success continued for more than half a century. Even in 40-ies she found admirers among the common people, for whom Ofen divorce fairs bast its publication, (Wed. Hubert, "Mater. for russ. bibl. ", No.. II, p. 128). New Book "Darling" was in print in 1778, Mr.. Five years later, it issued in its entirety friend Bogdanovich, Alex Rzhevskii, with a preface, is an echo of the views that society. The first time a thorough review of "Darling" belongs Karamzin, printed on Bogdanovich more critical-biographical story immediately after his death in the Journal of Europe "(1803, N 9 and 10). Comparing with the narrative poem Bogdanovich Lafontaine, . Karamzin came to the conclusion, . that "darling" in many places, . pleasant and lively "its original, . as Bogdanovich, . "not letting go of the eye Lafontaine, . goes its own way and tear on the meadow flowers, . who had taken refuge from the French poet ",
. Main merit Bogdanovich that he was "first in Russian imagination in light verse: Lomonosov, Sumarokov, Kheraskov could be for him only in other samples of childbirth". Batiushkov closest successor Bogdanovich in "light" poetry, as in "Darling" "true and great talent". Pushkin, not recognizing Bogdanovich's "great", mentioned him as "dear," the poet finds in his poem, poems, and entire pages worthy of La Fontaine, "and even imitated Bogdanovich in" Ruslan and Ludmilla ". Baratynskij Bogdanovich called "poet alive, intricate and gentle, always fascinating, though somewhat careless". Over time, a favorable attitude toward the author of "Darling" turns into a merciless on him a sentence. In 1813. P. Vyazemskij monotony of the perceived drawbacks of the poem, making "sweetheart" like "flower fresh and beautiful, but without the smell, a mixture of Greek mythology with a Russian fairy-tale epic, and the tendency of the author of" buffoonery ". Belinsky in "Literary Reveries" (1834) spoke about "Darling" as a work "not without merit, . not without talent ", . but 7 years later, believed, . that "labor and sweat should read" the infamous tale, . written clumsy verses, . Violent accents, . "devoid of any poetry, . playfulness, . Graces, . Wit,
. The most thorough evaluation of all literary activity Bogdanovich was made a. Galakhov in "Notes of the Fatherland" (1849, N 5). A detailed comparison with Bogdanovich's epic tale of La Fontaine's story, and Apuleius Galakhova led to the conclusion that "darling" - a comic parody of the mythological world of Greece and could be called "Psyche, turned inside out". However, . He sees the historical significance Bogdanovich for the future course of Russian literature in the, . that in "Darling" committed "a happy turn of seclusion poetry, . from literacy to cabinet-national service - perfect light tone of the poem, . convergence of its expression with an expression of life's ",
. - More work Bogdanovich unremarkable. Comedy Joy Darling "is that the gods rode forty, and tumbled over the head to disperse the melancholy darling, who does not love anything" shining ". In the drama "Slavs" by forces of Alexander the Great as a lover of cabbage and "simple Slavic customs" talk with "naive" gardener Potapevnoy. Other theatrical Bogdanovich empty and lifeless. In the field of lyric Bogdanovich gave examples of the spiritual and ceremonial odes, hymns of praise, stanzas, messages, songs, epigrams, fables, inscriptions, epitaphs, and other small poems. His songs VIPs - handicraft products Prosody in the spirit of those very odopistsev over which he mocks Bogdanovich in his "Darling". Bogdanovich's love poems, of which the most fame enjoyed the song "Fifteen years have passed me," - negratsiozny, and sometimes dishonest (for example, "Idyll"), his fables and parables are not entertaining, epigrams - sluggish and flat. The value of the most successful of these experiments in verse - only stylistic. In the preface to the "historical image of Russia", . seems not to extract "the most important information", . mainly, . the history of an industrious and honorable Shcherbatova, . Bogdanovic claims, . that he does not avoid the word "current", . except for insignificant accept prostonarechiem living people,
. From this standpoint, the author of "darling" has not yet rated. Bogdanovich drew attention to the folk poetry. He tried to enter the People's poetic element in his "darling": a poem, along with the Hesperides, marshmallows and dragons mentioned Koschey-Immortal, King-Maiden, milk and honey, dead and living water, the serpent Gorynych etc.. Frenchified Psyche Bogdanovich pereryadil in Russian national dress. In his collection "Russian proverbs doctored in poetic form" pure gold of genuine poetry, and popular sense, "to just remark Galakhova, replaced" colorless, although it smoothed ". According to Karamzin, Bogdanovich different "natural frankness," "sweet prostoserdechiem", "no one noticed his author's vanity". No copyright conceit in Bogdanovich, most likely due to the fact that Bogdanovich its authorship, like the majority of the then writers, set far below their service. "I am not Pindar tschus glory be exalted, not nice in the light I want to be helpful," exclaims Bogdanovich in "purely Bliss". Evaluating the activities Bogdanovich, from a historical point of view, we can not recognize him quite important achievements in the history of Russian literature. In an era of heavy bombastic odes and poems he wrote a poem, which has long been considered an excellent example of "light" poetry. Being himself brought up in psevdoklassicheskoy school under the direct supervision Kheraskov, . Bogdanovich attempted, . contrary to prevailing notions of the literary, . enter into poetry, simplicity and freedom "- free on the number of feet and the alternation of verse and rhyme easy, . simple language,
. But, devoid of the poetic gift, Bogdanovich was not able to break with the traditions of the school piitiki. Its main merit is that he is one of the first, some of his works, gave an example of convergence of the literary language, while the scarcity and raw, with prostonarechiem living people ". "Darling" was published many times (2 nd revised edition with a preface by the author appeared in St. Petersburg., . 1794; 3rd - M., . 1799, 4 th - y Beketova in Bogdanovich's Collected Works, 5 th - St. Petersburg., . 1809, 6 th at Beketova, . M., . 1811, . lost during the fire of Moscow in 1812),
. Until 1852. inclusive "Darling" has stood for about 20 publications. Then "Darling" appears only in 1885, 1888 and 1890 respectively in the "Cheap Library Suvorin and in 1892 and 1893 respectively in the publication Johanson. Collection of essays and translations Bogdanovich for the first time issued Pl. Beketov, 6 h. (M., 1809 - 1810), this edition was burned down in 1812. and repeated in 1818, Mr.. 4 pm; 3rd - Smirdin in 2 volumes (St. Petersburg, 1848) - faulty and incomplete Reprint Beketovskogo. Publication Beketova very careful: the original version of "Darling" included changes made by the author in the 2 nd and 3 rd edition. But it has become not all written by Bogdanovich, in addition, Bogdanovich's writings are not in chronological order and without chronological indications. Bibliographic Index of works Bogdanovich and literature about him cm. y C. Vengerov in IV T. "Critical-biographical dictionary". Literature on Bogdanovich, in extracts and whole, almost all reproduced in the "Russian poetry" C. Vengerov, t. I, No.. V; in No.. III "Russian poetry" published collection of poems Bogdanovich, with an article of Professor Nezelenova and Bogdanovich's autobiography (from the "Fatherland Notes, 1853, N 4). Articles. Arabazhina placed in the IV t. "Critical-biographical dictionary", Article A. Slonimsky - in the "Literary Gazette, 1903, t. V. AN. Shlosberg.

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