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Boltin Ivan

( Russian historian)

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Biography Boltin Ivan
photo Boltin Ivan
(1735 - 1792). Born into a noble family. Primary education received at home. 16 years Boltin was enrolled as a private in the Horse Guards Regiment in 1768, Mr.. retired with the rank of Major General and was soon identified the Director of Customs in Wasilkow; after 10 years, . through the influence of Potemkin, . was transferred to St. Petersburg, . the main customs office, . and on its closure, . in 1780, . assigned to a military college, . First Attorney, . and then (in 1788) - a member of the board; Boltin traveled to Russia and by direct observation is well acquainted with various aspects of folk life,
. However, . "through many of the summer in the national history of practicing", . he collected a vast store of information about the Russian past by annals, . letters and published by the time the works (eg, . "History" Tatishcheva) is the news, . that he left a hundred different bundles of papers and manuscripts, . have been Solomon's seal Catherine II,
. The results of their studies Boltin first tried to express in the form of historical-geographical dictionary, which, if implemented, the plan is divided into two distinct: the actual historical-geographical dictionary and explanatory Slavo-Russian. Both were, however, is not finished: the first focused on the letter C (cm. Schekatova, "Dictionary of Geography"), and the second - on the letter A. Work on a dictionary Boltin served for further preparation for the role of the Russian historian. He owns two major historical work: "Notes on the history of ancient and present-day Russia Leclerc" (2 volumes, 1788) and "Critical notes on the history of Prince Shcherbdtov" (2 volumes, 1793 - 1794). Both works were, as is evident from the title, critical tasks, but by a very wide scale use of them gained their stock of knowledge and observations, so that they in sufficient detail the positive impact of his historical views. We Boltin a whole world. According to theoretical views he is close to the then mechanical direction of historical thought that is adjacent to its source to Boden. And Boltin pattern of historical events is a central idea, which is guided by historical research. Historian must, . his opinion, . explain "the circumstances, . needed for the historical context and explain the consequential byty; details are permissible only if, . if they serve to clarify the sequence of events, otherwise it will be "empty talk",
. The main type of the sequence byty "Boltin believes a causal link, as it is manifested in the fact that the impact of physical environment on human. "The main impact of human manners, as the heart and soul, has a climate"; directly "different states of climate change produced in the human body ... Inasmuch as the body and soul are closely interrelated, ... same actions and produce the body ". Next to the climate as the main factor Boltin recognizes the importance of other secondary, what are, for example, usage of other nations, and foreign EU ETS and spicy roots, lifestyles, customs, changed his clothes, education, etc.. These factors contribute to the influence of the principal or impede it, and sometimes, when the constancy of the latter, and may themselves define "morals" of people, for example, "they are the reason why our present manners with the habits of our fathers nikakova similarities do not have". Thus, the climate and the "collateral circumstances" as a force opposed to reason as the object of the impact of "manners". Morals or national character are to Boltin foundation on which a state order: observed in the history of changes in laws' place "as treason in manners". It follows and practical conclusion: "It is easier to figure the laws manners than morals laws, the last without violence can not be done". These theoretical views Boltin applies to the explanation of the Russian historical process. Russia "in no way similar" to other European states, because its too different "physical location and formed a very different course of its history. Boltin Russian history begins with the coming of Rurik, which filed the case in a mix of "Rousseau and the Slavs. Because coming Rurik Boltin and is the "age of conception of the Russian people", . these tribes, . differed before their properties, . formed through a mixture of new people, . which is then "manners and properties received commensurate with the climate, . governance and education, . under koimi lived ",
. Already during the first Russian princes had "rule, the indigenous laws and regulations approved by the indispensable", with which we are introduced in part under contracts with the Greeks. At the heart of its ancient laws are identical with the "Russian Truth", which were introduced only in minor changes "for the time difference and accident". But the "great change" occurred "in the laws and usages" the splitting up of Russia into fiefdoms, where "the needs and circumstances of each have to be special". Under pressure from the last published an inheritance local laws, whose distinction is made "more vyaschshuyu abolition of customs". The difference in the manners, . created specific fragmentation, . retains its significance in the process which began after the political unification of Russia, . appearing obstacle to the establishment of a unified public order under Ivan III and Vasily III: "It was impossible to reconcile the laws, . not agree above morals, . opinion and favor,
. Only in the reign of Ivan IV the time for this, and with the publication of "Sudebnik" was reinstated in effect the general law in force before, t. e. "Russian Truth", a simple modification which Boltin considers "Royal Sudebnik". In the subsequent time, "morals" were affected by the legislation, such as the publication of "Law Code", and by education. Boltin, in general, does not approve of the way first exposure; but he expects great results from the second, especially from the educational activities of Catherine. In his "Notes" Boltin makes a number of interesting ideas and social history of Russia, for example, on the history of the peasantry and the nobility, on the vassals, but the party remained outside the main historical scheme. Integrity and well thought-out views on Russian history Boltin far superior and contemporary, and many following him historians. According to numerous references in the "Notes" can be seen, . Boltin that was familiar with Western education (eg, . with Voltaire, . Montesquieu, . Mercier, . Rousseau, . Beyle and others), . but it has not lost a sense of living connection with this ancient and native, . without going to extremes, . able to appreciate the significance of national identity,
. He believes that Russia has developed its habits, and they should be protected - otherwise we risk to be "different from themselves," but she was poor education - and Boltin not opposed to the Russian borrowed "knowledge and art, their western neighbors. In such a mood was Boltin tread Leclerc, . who in his "Histoire physique, . morale, . civil et politique de la Russie ancienne et moderne ", . expressed many negative, . sometimes disparaging judgments about Russian life, hence the decision Boltin detect errors French historian, . voluntary and involuntary,
. But he could not resist to the point of view of objective critical analysis of works: under the influence of patriotic feelings, he sometimes tries to weaken the impression of the dark aspects of ancient life, . Noting the relevant shortcomings in the history of Western morals, . sometimes skrashivaya really to the detriment of impartiality [eg, . in agreement with the author of antidote (Catherine), . arguing, . that in Russia the peasants live better, . than in any other State],
. This feature tells the historical outlook Boltin subjective moral tone. This train of thoughts and feelings brought together Boltin with Catherine II, whose views since the French Revolution took a nationalistic direction. This explains why the "Notes" on the history of Leclerc and were not conceived without the participation of the Empress, acting through the Potemkin, and were published in its money. - See. Sukhomlinov, "History of the Academy of Russia" (No.. V); Klyuchevskii, "And. N. B. "(" Russian Thought ", 1892, N 11), article by Professor Ikonnikova in the Russian Biographical Dictionary". A. Z.

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