BORNYANSKY Dmitry Stepanovich( famous Russian composer and first director of the court chapel)
Comments for BORNYANSKY Dmitry Stepanovich
Biography BORNYANSKY Dmitry Stepanovich
(1751 - 1825). Born in Glukhov (Chernigov province) and seven-year old boy was taken to court singing the chorus. While the court for theatrical performances and concerts, there is no separate chorus, and they attended the same court choir, who sang in the church. Bortniansky not only sang in the choir, but the 11-year-old played the solo women's party in the opera "Alceste" Raupaha.
Deportment on the stage, he was trained, like other singers, in Gentry Cadet Corps. On arrival in St. Petersburg. Balthasar Galuppi, nominated court opera and ballet composer and conductor, Bortniansky began seriously studying his music. When (1768) Galuppi left Russia Bortniansky was sent at government expense abroad to continue with him in Venice, his musical education. Bortniansky acquired a solid composition techniques and showed his talent even in Italy, writing a number of major works, operas, cantatas, sonatas (not published)
. Some of his operas were on the Italian scene: "Creon" - a musical tragedy - in the theater Benedictine (1777), "Alcides" - opera in 2 acts - in a theater in Venice (1778), "Quintus Fabius" - a musical drama - in the ducal Modena Theater (1779)
. Bortniansky visited Florence, Bologna, Rome, Naples, studying the works of Italian masters. In 1779, Mr.. he received a letter from the Chief Director of the performances and court music, Elagina, asking him to return to Russia. "If you seek the same will continue for the new flavor is to visit Italy (written, incidentally, Elagin), you can hope that will be released" (cm. "Russian Gazette Musicale", 1900, N 40). In the same year Bortniansky returned to St. Petersburg.
Works of his have made a great impression at the court, and immediately he was appointed "court composer of the choir singing". In 1796, the establishment of the court chapel, he was made its first manager and was named Director of vocal music. In this position he remained until his death. The responsibilities of Bortniansky included not only conducting the choir, but also the composition of church hymns and superintendence Chapel administratively
. Bortniansky improved the composition of the choir, has increased its membership, bringing it gradually to 60 (instead of 24), and reached that the chapel served as the sole purpose of church music and is not invited to the performances, which in 1800, Mr.
. established his own chorus. Bortniansky and most improved performance of the chorus, making it more strictly ecclesiastical, were considered eliminating spectacular flamboyant virtuoso ornaments, cries. At that time it was run many religious works of the Italian, half-secular style, often completely tasteless and does not fit with the splendor of worship. Write music for church texts began our Galuppi.
He also introduced and the form of so-called concert (motet). Visiting Catherine II the court Kapellmeister Giuseppe Sarti also wrote church concerts. All these works have made in the church singing Italian opera and the dramatic nature. Applied to, and works by unknown artists, with direct borrowing operatic motifs. 8 - and 12-Tones concerts often sung from manuscripts with errors and with the changes themselves artists. At the insistence of Bortniansky issued a series of imperial decree, guarding the purity of the church style.
In 1816, Mr.. was commanded: "All, . neither sung in churches on the notes, . be printed and contain or from the works of director of court singing the chorus Bortniansky, . or other well-known writers, . But these recent works must necessarily be with the approval pechataemy Bortniansky ",
. On Personal Bortniansky exclusive right of censorship on the hymns, his successors continued to use until, . while in the 1820-ies was no explanation of the Holy Synod, . that this right belongs only to him, . as an institution, . rather than individual,
Bortniansky was asked to teach sextons parish churches in St. Petersburg. "consistent and simple music-singing", which under his editorship was printed and distributed by the churches of the court tune liturgy in two voices. But the eradication of a concert of Italian style progressed slowly, by the way, and because he liked the most clergy. In his own concerts Bortniansky not abandoned the style that, although it easily, avoiding such effects, such as fioriturnye Jewelry.
To contemporaries Bortnyansky his writings, imbued with religious feeling, were a notable step forward, but subsequent generations, even the closest, their style could not be recognized as fully responsible to their purpose. п-.пг. Lvov, in his essay "On a free or asymmetrical rhythm" have too free circulation Bortniansky with church texts on the allowed permutations of words and even change the text in favor of a purely musical demands. MI. Glinka Bortniansky called "Sugar Medovich Patokin". PI. Tchaikovsky, editing the "Complete Works" Bortniansky, sternly spoke of his writings, finding in concert "the most flat set of common places, and of all the works mentioned, only some" dozen decent things "(M. Tchaikovsky, "Life PI. Tchaikovsky t. II). "I admit some merit for Bortniansky, Berezovsky and others, - he wrote H. f. Meck (ibid.) - but to what degree their music has little in harmony with the style of Byzantine architecture and icons, with all systems of the Orthodox service ". Style church works Bortniansky rather harmonic, contrapuntal than the harmony of, in general, the complexity does not differ
. Home Bortniansky melody places are almost always in the upper voice, and taking care of the allocation it rarely gives independent meaning other voices, often moving in parallel thirds and Sexton, that tells the whole a certain monotony
. Knowing well the human voice, always wrote Bortniansky udoboispolnimo and reached a beautiful sonority. But the rich audio side of his singing does not serve the purpose for him or obscure their prayerful mood. That is why many works Bortniansky gladly sung, and now, the congregation was moved. His "Cherubic Hymn", imbued with mysticism, verging in the second half of the hymns to lively religious ecstasy, as if set Bortniansky prototype, which followed and the subsequent Russian composers. From this prototype is not departed and Glinka in his "Cherubic".
Bortniansky first made the experience of harmonizing the old church melodies contained in the monophonic motet books published by the Holy Synod for the first time in 1772. These harmonization with Bortniansky bit: heirmos "Helper and Protector", "Now the powers of heaven", "Your bridal chamber," "Angel vopiyashe", "Today the Virgin", "Come, please the Joseph and some other. In these arrangements of Bortniansky only approximately preserved the character of the church tunes, . giving them a uniform size, . put them in the framework of the European major and minor tonalities, . which required some time to change and most tunes, . Entered in the harmonization of chords, . not peculiar to the so-called church frets ringtones,
. But all this does not exclude the peculiar beauty of its transpositions. Despite the European forms and Italianisms Bortniansky, in his writings can be found rusitsizmy, manifested in melodic turns, at least - in the rhythm.
He credited an essay entitled: "Draft of the printing of ancient Russia hook Singing" (published by Prince PP. Viazemsky in the Annex to the Protocol, the Society of Lovers of Ancient Writing Systems "April 25, 1878), but it belongs Bortniansky contested VV. Stasov ( "The writing is attributed Bortnyansky" - "Russian Musical Newspaper", 1900, N 47); adopted it without sufficient credibility SV. Smolensky ( "In memory of DS. Bortniansky "-" Russian Musical Newspaper ", 1901, N 39, 40) and A. Preobrazhensky (DS. Bortniansky "-" Russian Musical Newspaper ", 1900, N 40). - According to contemporaries, Bortniansky was extremely nice man, stern to the service, passionately devoted to art, a kind and gracious to the people. They say that on the day of death Bortniansky summoned and ordered the chapel choir to sing a concert Vskuyu regrettable Thou, O my soul, the sound of which died quietly. Bortniansky buried in St. Petersburg, in the Smolensk Cemetery.
In New York, the new Episcopal Cathedral of St.. St. John placed a statue Bortniansky. From the works Bortniansky most famous are the concerts: "Voice of the Lord my cry", "Tell mi death of my Lord" "Thou Vskuyu regrettable, . my soul, "" Let God be scattered at once it ";" Since your beloved village, . Lord "; Lenten chants -" Let my prayer ", . "Now the powers of heaven", . Easter hymns - "Angel vopiyashe", . "Shine, . light "; anthem -" Glorious is our Lord in Zion ",
. Works Bortniansky were published only in 1825, Mr.. under the supervision of Fr. Turchaninova.
In addition to publishing Orchestra (incomplete) there is publication n. Jurgenson: "Complete Collection of spiritual and musical compositions", edited by P. Tchaikovsky. These included 9 three-part essay (including the "Liturgy"), 29 four-selected hymns from church services (including 7 "Cherubic Hymn"), 16 dvuhornyh chants; 14 "praise songs" ( "praise God, to Thee" and 4 four-and 10 dvuhornyh); 45 concerts (35 four-and 10 dvuhornyh) private prayers and hymns (including "Glorious"),
. Numerous works Bortniansky in secular music is not published. Two of them are in manuscript in the Imperial Public Library in St. Petersburg.: 1) Quintet in C-dur, op. in 1787, for piano, harp, violin, viola de gamba and cello, and 2) symphony ( "Sinfonie concertante") B-dur, op. in 1790, for piano, two violins, harp, viola de gamba, bassoon and cello. This symphony is essentially little different from the quintet in form, style and instrumentation
. Under, . attached to the imperial order April 29, 1827, . purchase from the heirs of his works Bortniansky, . appear among other things: "Purification of Orpheus Sun", . Marsh universal militia of Russia ", . "Songs of the Warrior", . "Singer in the camp of Russian soldiers", 30 arias and duets Russian, . French and Italian music and orchestra, 16 choir Russian and Italian music and orchestra, 61 overtures, . concerts, . sonatas, . marches and various compositions for sacred music, . piano, . Harp and other instruments, . Opera Italian 5, . and "Ave Maria", . "Salve Regina" with orchestra, . "Dextera Domini" and "Messa",
. - About Bortniansky, apart from those mentioned sources, see: D. Razumovsky, "Church singing in Russia (Moscow, 1867); N.A. Lebedev, "Berezovsky and Bortnyansky as composers of church music" (St. Petersburg, 1882); collection of articles by different authors under the title: "In memory of spiritual composers Bortniansky, Turchaninova and Lvov (St. Petersburg, 1908; articles against. M. Lisitsyn and H. Reliable). G. T.