Bryukhovetskiy Ivan Martynovich( malorossiysky Hetman)
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Biography Bryukhovetskiy Ivan Martynovich
(1663 - 68). Bryukhovetskaya origin unknown: to preserve the information that he was "semi-Liakh; reliably that he had Cossack ancestors. Education was, apparently, only elementary, but he was not devoid of talented, eloquent, resourceful. A distinctive feature of Silo was a complete lack of principle and shamelessness in achieving their goals. He began his career as a personal service hetmans Khmelnitsky, father and son. He never returned from Zaporozhye, since realized that may make it a mainstay of his elevation. Zaporozhye at that time played a big role in Ukrainian public life, constantly interfering in the political events and directing them according to their likes and interests. Zaporozhye has always acted as a representative of the mob in the division between the Cossack leaders, on the one hand, and pospolstvom the other, which already has been set at this time. Bryukhovetskiy assumed the role of an ardent demagogue: a beautiful folk thought about Ganji Andybere preserved the memory of the role in which he spoke at the Zaporozhye. Soon he was elected - elected leader Hetman, as was the call itself. But the position of Zaporizhzhya Koshevogo Silo was just a convenient stage for the implementation of its ambitious plans. He earned location Boyar Romodanovsky, in whose hands was the command of Moscow's troops in the Ukraine, and made friends with the influential bishop Methodius, was considered the guardian of the Metropolitan's throne. Methodius, with that bring Bryukhovetskaya equally complete lack of principles, became a powerful tool for achieving their goals Bryukhovetskaya target. That goal was to seize power in the left-bank hetman Ukraine. Just at that time already become perceptible gap between the right bank and left bank. Right Bank had its own special Hetman represented Teteria; on the left bank of the struggle for power two contenders, both relying on the relationship with the Bogdan Khmelnitsky: Pereyaslav Colonel Somko and Nijinsky Zolotarenko. Somko already used the title nakaznogo Hetman and was elected Cossack leaders at its assembly is in real hetmans. But the feud for power between the two colonels went on, and it took the third, made a surprise appearance, pretender to the hetman - Bryukhovetskiy. In view of this danger and Somko Zolotarenko reconciled, but it was too late. Bryukhovetskiy managed to cause interference with Moscow and its insistence that to select the Hetman was convened by the so-called black glad t. e. pleased with the participation of not only the elders or the Cossacks, but only pospolstva and Zaporozhye. Such a happy place under Nizhin in June 1663, Mr.. in the presence sent from Moscow boyar Velikogagina. The first day of glad resolved dump between supporters Somka and Silo, the second day Bryukhovetskiy was peacefully elected hetman, as all Cossack regiments, followed by the Dnieper Cossacks and the mob, went over to his side. After the election, began looting the property of Cossack elders. Representatives hostile Bryukhovetskaya elders were arrested and then exiled to Siberia, and Somko Zolotarenko - executed. Having become hetman, Bryukhovetskiy left demagogic position and began to strengthen its position with Moscow. He has contributed to their attitude to the Moscow government is servility and obsequiousness, of which so far refrained Ukrainian hetman: an appeal to the king, he wrote himself "Ivashko", "footrest" the king, and t. d. The first of the hetman, he went to bow to Moscow, took the title of nobleman, married to a Moscow boyaryshne Saltykova. But most importantly, what he hoped to buy the favor of Moscow and fully consolidate his position - a proposal to the Moscow government, ostensibly on behalf of a controlled country, intensified intervention in its internal life. This proposal was very pleased to Moscow, as well as paving the way to welcome her traditional policy. In all the big cities of Little Russia were sent to Moscow governor now with the extended jurisdiction and the right to levy taxes. In order tributary of taxation was arranged census, carried out a general murmur. In its cooperation Bryukhovetskiy went so far as to request the appointment of Metropolitan of Moscow, the Moscow government, which refused, not considering themselves entitled to dispose of the Metropolitan of Kiev without the blessing of the Patriarch of Constantinople. All sections of Little Russian society were outraged by the actions of the Hetman. Yet in 1667, Mr.. brought Andrusovo contract. Splitting of Ukraine on the left bank and right bank to make a political fact, which was an agreement in Poland and Moscow, which without any participation of the Ukrainian population is divided between its territory. Public discontent has an acute form and focused on the Silo, which became the object of general hatred. At the same time on the right bank was put forward as a hetman Doroshenko, in which all felt a patriot and ardent advocate of the unity of Ukraine. Doroshenko had sent to the left bank "lovely" letter, which stirred the minds. Doroshenko demolished and Silo, urging him to abandon Moscow and promising to help him become hetman under the auspices of Turkey and the Crimea. Sensing the precariousness of his position, Bryukhovetskiy surrendered. He changed the Moscow and raised a revolt against it: first of all have been expelled governor. But this did not save the Silo, as was a general desire to have a hetman Doroshenko. The latter came with his army on the left bank, both of Hetman Serbinskom met on the field near the village Dikan'ki. Cossacks Bryukhovetskaya immediately declared themselves supporters Doroshenko Bryukhovetskaya grabbed and dragged him to the right bank hetman. Doroshenko ordered chain him to the gun and made a sign with his hand: the Cossacks took the gesture for the death sentence and killed Silo. Terribly mutilated his corpse was taken on the orders Doroshenko in Gadyach, where he was buried with honors Hetman. - See. Kostomarov, "Monographs", t. XV, P. E. "Hetman Silo" (Kiev Olden, 1881).