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Bubnov Nikolai Mikhailovich

( historian)

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Biography Bubnov Nikolai Mikhailovich
Born in 1858. He graduated from the course to the historical-philological faculty of St. Petersburg University in 1881. Left at the university to prepare for a professorship, Bubnov engaged in one of the most difficult and mysterious sources of X in the history of France., Letters of Herbert. For this purpose, spent 21 / 2 years (1882 - 1885) abroad, studying the manuscripts in many Western European libraries and archives. For work "Collected Letters of Herbert (983 - 997) as a historical source. A critical monograph on the manuscripts "(3 vols., 1888 - 1890) in 1891. Bubnov was awarded the St. Petersburg University, bypassing the master's, Ph.D. World History. In 1893, Mr.. Academy of Sciences awarded him for this work full Makarevsky Prize. In 1890 - 1891 years Bubnov lectured at the University for Women in St. Petersburg, June 1891. was invited to Kiev professor and taught there until the death of Professor Fortinskogo (1903) old, and since that time the department moved to the middle of history. Since the resumption of higher rates of women in Kyiv in 1906. Bubnov is professor of history mean to them, and since 1905. took to select a position of dean of History and Philology. From 1894 to 1902. consisted vowel Kiev city council, in which participated as head of the City Public Library, and chairman of the commission for the introduction of electric lighting in Kiev. In Kiev Bubnov was written by a number of scientific studies that were in connection with his work on the Herbert. The legend and the latest evidence, as well as many modern scholars consider him for the student Arabs who had undergone in Europe, the Indo-Arabic numerals and arithmetic called abaca. Bubnov destroyed these misconceptions by demonstrating in a number of works that details of Herbert in mathematics (arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy) exclusively classical origin. Only in astronomy may prevent the influence on him of Arabic science, but not directly, but only through the translation into Latin, Arabic writings on the astrolabe, based, however, Ptolemy. As for arithmetic, Herbert or his abacus, the Bubnov, not only for the first time constructed a system of arithmetic, but also proved that it is a classical origin, and that it came from, and modern (Indo-Arab) arithmetic. The figures, which were used by Herbert and his contemporaries in the X in. on the abacus, borrowed not from the Arabs, and were, according to the Bubnov, known and classical antiquity. His value on the Status of tokens they have acquired the Greek abacus, . countable table with decimal columns, . which laid out tokens, . including unlabeled figure round token, . founder zero, . appeared as a written sign above all Indians do not later VIII in,
. for Christmas and is a simple pattern badge abaca. The remaining digits formed from one of the Ural-Altaic peoples of Central Asia and were known in India before Christmas, but without a value on, and their number was more than nine. Its modern meaning they have received only the Greek abacus, and it is their number was limited to nine. We abatsistov X in. still preserved Turanian names of some of them. Reason for research in this area was laid critical edition based on extensive manuscript material in Berlin in 1899. with introduction and commentary on the mathematical works of Herbert and related other authors: "Gerberti postea Sylvestri II papae opera mathematica", pp. CXIX +620. It found out the enormous historical significance for the geometry of the medieval manuscripts of the Roman surveyors to the XII century. When in Europe there is a genuine Euclid in Arabic. Diamonds made a series of "Studies on the history of science in Europe". In this series appeared: T. I, I. "Arithmetic independence of European culture. Cultural and historical sketch "(Kiev, 1908). T. I. "The origin and history of our numbers" (ib., 1908); T. II: "A genuine essay by Herbert on the abacus, or system of elementary arithmetic of classical antiquity" (Kiev University Izvestia from 1905 to 1910, and separately, Kiev, 1911), T. III: "Abacus and Boethius. Lorraine scientific fraud in the XI. "In the Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1907 - 1909 and separately. SPb., 1912); T. IV: "The ancient abacus - the cradle of modern arithmetic" (No.. I, Kiev, 1912). In addition, he published two lectures on Roman history in Kiev of University Izvestia 1891 and 1892 years: "The significance of Roman history in the World", "Rome Chamber before the fall of the republic."

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