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BUNGE Nicholas Hristianovich

( Financier, economist and statesman)

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Biography BUNGE Nicholas Hristianovich
photo BUNGE Nicholas Hristianovich
(1823 - 95), comes from the noble profession of the evangelical, born in Kiev, where his father was considered an experienced physician on children's diseases; education in the 1st Kiev Gymnasium and the University of St. Vladimir, where he completed the course in 1845. At the same time, Bunge was determined teacher Bezborodko the prince's face, and to protect in 1847, Mr.. Master's thesis "Investigation began commercial law of Peter the Great" ( "Fatherland Notes, 1850) was approved by the professor of the Lyceum. In the dark backwoods Nezhin he was an ardent missionary of European science and citizenship, as Professor, . he actively took care of raising the level of development of its students: to make available to selected students of the treasures of European science, . Bunge gave lessons in his apartment in foreign languages,
. This rare and a nice feature - love all of the young and the smell of all the young talented - Bunge retained and subsequently, . when (in 1850) became a professor at the University of St. Vladimir, . and therein lies the clue extraordinary success of his university lectures,
. In 1852, Mr.. Bunge Kiev University was awarded a doctorate in political science for his thesis "Theory of credit" (Kiev, 1852). In 1869, Mr.. changed the department of political economy and statistics at the police department right. Police law does not seem Bunge solid science, in the doctrine of the security (the laws of decorum), he sees a part of state law, and in the doctrine of the welfare of (the laws of accomplishment) - application of the political economy. Consistent with this, in its course "Police Law" (Kiev, 1873 - 77), which remained unfinished, and in which he had set out some sections of accomplishment, the prevailing economic point of view. Police law Bunge corresponds to what is now known as Economic Policy. In presenting the theory of economic policy by not limited to the common origins, . as, . his opinion, . study of some general laws without regard to the facts, . in which these laws are found, . easily degenerate into a dry and abstract scholasticism, . she could be of interest to specialists, . but powerless to resolve vital issues,
. Bunge has issued more for its students "Course Statistics" (Kiev, 1865, 2 ed., 1876) and "Foundations of Political Economy" (ib., 1870). In the difficult days of university life, when the universities were deprived of self-government, Bunge in office to appoint the rector (from 1859 - 1862) with dignity, stood at the head of the Kiev University. But on returning to universities suffrage Bunke twice been elected rector of the same University of Kiev and was in office from 1871 to 1875. and from 1878 to 1880. In 1880, Mr.. He left the University. Bunge was one of those professors who are not confined to the blank walls of his office. With a bright and vast intellect, he could not respond to public questions that life put in place. The result was a series of articles, placed them in various periodicals since 1852,. These articles, . Related to the anticipated time of the peasant reform (in the "Notes of the Fatherland", . 1858, . and in the Russian Messenger in 1859, . N 2 and 8), . to spreading a new kind of industrial enterprises in the form of joint stock companies (in the Journal for the shareholders, . 1855 and 1858) and many others, . between them can not mention his comments about the device of Studies at universities (in Russian Messenger in 1858, . t,
. XVII) and the banking policies (in the "Collection of the State of Knowledge", t. I, 1874). Important practical significance and its study "warehouses and warrants" (Kiev, . 1871), but particular attention paid to a study Bunge on how we restore the proper circulation of money, . shaken by excessive issue of paper money,
. These include the works: "On the recovery of metallic currency in Russia" (Kiev, 1877), "On the recovery of a permanent monetary unit in Russia" (Kiev, 1878) and articles in the "Collection of the State of Knowledge", t. VI, 1878, and t. XIII, 1880. Bunge also translated and added to a composition. Wagner's "Russian paper money" (Kiev, 1871). In 1859, . when ripened peasant reform, . Bunge has been invited to participate in Finance Committee, . who had his appointment priiskanie grounds and how the final resolution of the peasant question through the purchase of plots by the Government,
. Again called to St. Petersburg to participate in the discussion of the new university statute (1863), Bunge received a commission to teach the science of finance and political economy of Tsarevich Nikolai Alexandrovich. The basis of these lectures Bunge put them translated into Russian the book by Karl von Gok "Taxes and public debts" (Kiev, 1865). Upon returning to Kiev, Bunge, leaving university classes, took over as manager of Kiev Office of the State Bank. Standing thus at the very source of credit operations, Bunge was able to verify in practice guidelines of the theory of finance. Since that time his voice was crucial in matters of financial. Entry Bunge in 1880, Mr.. office assistant minister of Finance and shortly thereafter in 1881. and the Finance Minister was greeted with sympathy and great expectations. - Bunge - Minister of Finance. Bunge had to join the management of the Ministry under very difficult circumstances. Onset after 1 March 1881. reaction reflected on the financial status of the country. Moreover, two years in a row - 1884 g. especially 1885. - Marked by almost universal crop failures, and this has had adverse consequences for industry and commerce. The first budget of 1881. Bunge had to reduce the deficit in excess of 50 million rubles. The amount of public debt at 1 January 1881. reached over 6 billion, and it was inevitable conclusion, a number of new loans. One of the first acts of Bunge's gold production was 6% nd rent in 1883 that found, in view of the extremely high percentage, odium society. Status of the credit ruble rate was very poor. In 1881, Mr.. average price of the ruble stood at 65.8 cents in gold, in 1886. - 58, . 9; balance of payments was extremely unfavorable, . and on foreign exchanges, . especially Berlin, . Speculation was made with Russian funds and credit rubles, . against which Bunge, . Guided by the system of non-intervention in the exchange relationship, . take appropriate action,
. In one of his first official memorandum reports (1883) Bunge follows established its financial program: "A careful study of the weaknesses of our political system is concerned to ensure proper growth of the industry enough for her patronage: to strengthen the lending institutions on the basis of, . proven experience, . besides helping to reduce the cost of credit; increase in the interest of the people and the State profitability of railway companies, . establishing proper control over them; consolidate credit aggregate circulation of money directed towards achieving this goal gradually undertaken measures, . introduce changes in the tax system, . commensurate with strict justice and the promise of the increment of income taxes without burdening taxpayers, and finally, . recover the excess of income over expenditure (without which improvement finance unthinkable) restriction sverhsmetnyh credits and compliance with reasonable prudence in all branches of government ",
. From this program Bunge certainly failed to excess income over expenditure, due to significant costs for emergency repayment of government loans. Throughout the rest of the time management Bunge was, indeed, an outstanding epoch in the history of Russian Finance. One of the first financial measures was reduction of redemption payments, . Bunge, which is considered necessary to improve the welfare of the rural population, . and which imperatively demanded by those, . that in general the peasants exacted more, . than is paid at redemption operation obligations,
. The decrease was made in the amount of 1 ruble each been charged with the redemption payments allotment in the Great locations and 16 kopecks to the ruble in Little Russia locations. The total reduction amounted to 12 million rubles per year. In 1885, Mr.. Bunge entered the State Council with the idea of universal (except Siberia) the abolition of January 1, 1886. poll tax, which constituted from the time of Peter the Great cornerstone of our financial system. This measure was to reduce the resources of the Treasury for 57 million rubles, . some of which are intended to compensate the increase in tax on alcohol (up to 9 cents per degree), . a part - an increase obrok tax to the state peasants (from the increase which the government in 1886,
. abandoned for 20 years). Council of State, however, decided to transfer the state peasants to buy, which is in fact nothing but a disguised tax increase obrok. Act June 12, 1886, Mr.. was set for the mandatory redemption of the state peasants. Cancel the poll tax was supposed to entail the abolition of collective responsibility. And in 1885. Bunge in its submission to the Council of State, . pointing to the devastating effects of this method of collection of taxes, . calling, . one hand, . "attachment of peasants to the land of the passport system", . the other - "the desire of absenteeism for priiskaniya best earnings", . spoke in favor of the abolition of collective responsibility,
. The State Council did not agree with the arguments of Bunge, and esprit de corps was left for tax replaced poll tax. Anyway, . destruction of the poll tax and the lowering of redemption payments serfs we owe exclusively Bunge, . who made a very bold step, . refusing to grow to 70 million rubles at a time, . when the budget deficit given,
. This is a significant decrease in income led Bunge to consult other sources and - above all - to increase taxes. So, . with Bunge taxes were increased, . except the tax on alcohol (first to 8 cents on the law of May 19, 1881, . then to 9 cents per degree, . the law May 18, 1885), . sugar (12 May 1881), . tobacco (18 May 1882), increased stamp duty (January 19, 1882), . increased tariff rates on many import items, . and open transit through the Caucasus, a tax on gold mining, . installed and additional fold-out charges to commercial and industrial enterprises (Laws July 5, 1884, Mr.,
. and January 5, 1885), . exalted tax on real estate in cities (13 May 1883), . and increased tax on land, . introduced a levy on income from financial capital and a tax on transfer of property bezmezdnymi ways (gift tax and inheritance), . raised taxes on foreign passports, . regulated sale pitey,
. Along with these tax reforms Bunge cared about the introduction of a tax inspector, who was to provide a more accurate receipt of taxes. Great importance for further economic development in Russia were established in Bunge new state credit establishment. From the point of view, . that the economic distress of the peasants are, . mainly, . due to failure and low productivity of their land holdings, . with the purchase of other land ownership is extremely difficult for farmers in mind the impossibility of using long-term loan, . Bunge has developed a draft state mortgage bank to assist farmers in acquiring land,
. Charter Bank was the highest approved May 18, 1882, Mr.. Loans were to be given 51 / 2% mortgage bond, obtained the title 51 / 2% of public testimony Peasant Land Bank. By its very charter of the bank was supposed to be the only mediator between peasants and landowners are already doing business on his own initiative. And from the very beginning the appointment of the bank, as the motives of the State Council, was to consist in promoting a prosperous and have some wealth to the peasants, but not land-poor. The Bank began its activities April 10, 1883, and by the end of the Ministry of Bunge, to 1886, had before it a reserve capital of 467.7 thousand rubles. In addition, the bank was open to the nobility and the bank, which was established specifically "to help the nobility". Theoretically Bunge Bank had to issue loans only to the nobles, the landowners, who themselves hold sway in their own land. But the State Board adopted the draft Bunge, eliminating any limitation. At Bunge, a major expansion was the construction of state railways. For this purpose, with Bunge has been spent up to 133.6 million rubles; penalty built railroads in the entire 3461 mile stretch of. In addition, acquired in the execution of several lines of private companies. Bunge himself doubted that the "treatment of the railways into public ownership immediately enriched the treasury, but I saw that" over time, the railways can become such a same branch of the state economy, as the Mail and Telegraph. Despite the lack of a plan to purchase private roads and the state railway construction and the huge deficits of railway operation, . Yet it is Bunge contributed much to streamline our railway policy, . and with it, and all Russian finance,
. Office Bunge Ministry of Finance marked the triumph of protectionism. Bunge activity coincided with the nationalist domestic policy. The ideal of the independence of the national economy, his release from foreign rule, preaching with special energy "Moscow News", and then Mendeleev, led to increasing demands of duties. Certain influence on the direction of protectionist trade policies in Bunge has a general revival of customs and the conservative wave sweeping across Europe and particularly in Germany offered in 1879. significant changes in the tariff system. In 1881, Mr.. was 10% surcharge on all tariff. June 16, 1884, Mr.. followed by the increase in duty on pig iron, which then joined by the corresponding increase in roller iron, steel, machinery and t. n. In 1884, Mr.. It also set forth a general duty on coal from differentsionalnym taxation of coal, imported through the Black Sea ports and the western land border. One of the major merits Bunge as Minister of Finance is his desire to introduce our income tax. Acute financial need in the late 70's and early 80-ies, . partly caused by the Turkish war, . part of the reduction of a number of public resources in the form of taxation reform, . partly general bad financial management, . placing the radical reform of taxation,
. In his most loyal report on 1884. Bunge in categorical and some form of recognized income tax is the most expedient and equitable way of taxing. But, fearing the strong breaking of economic relations, he decided not to proceed immediately to the introduction of income tax and for the first time established a number of special taxes that had value of the measures preparatory to the introduction of an income tax. Among the reforms Bunge must specify another first step towards regulation of factory labor, . expressed in the law of June 1, 1882, . beginning of a proper device municipal and private banks, . posited rules April 26, 1883, . and drinking Reform 1885,
. Few ministers had to endure so many attacks by the press, . in particular the Moscow Gazette, . and few regarded them as quietly, . without resorting to punitive Protection Administration and the official denial is strictly limited to the actual nature,
. In January 1887, Mr.. Bunge resigned as Minister of Finance and was appointed Chairman of the Committee of Ministers. Bunge was elected an honorary member of various societies, universities: St. Petersburg, Novorossiysk, Saint Vladimir and the Academy of Sciences, in 1890. elected as an ordinary academician in political economy, and published the book "Public accounting and financial reporting in England (St. Petersburg, 1890), which is an interesting material for the study of the budget law. In compiling this book the author used a number of practical information, delivered to him by our financial agents in Paris and London. - Bunge - economist. The main factor of economic life Bunge believed rivalry. Does not agree completely with any of the classics and finding significant inaccuracies in the views as Hell. Smith, Ricardo, Malthus, Mill, and Carey and Bastiat, he held an eclectic point of view, mostly adhering to the theories of Malthus and Mill. The main regulator of economic phenomena, he believed the demand and supply, and they have explained nearly all economic phenomena. This view is quite consistent and socio-political views Bunge. The rivalry Bunge recognized a huge positive impact. No rivalry came to a huge letdown. The rivalry turns fatal, . when entering into combat forces unequal, . one hand, . cohesive, . supported monopolies, . privileges, . huge capital, . on the other hand - crushed, . devoid of any support and unsecured in their activities,
. Evil is, according to Bunge, not in competition, but in its lack of weight and balance. Nevertheless, in the purchase of a live labor, t. e. in hiring labor, Bunge did not see anything enslaving and humiliating, because this purchase is connected with mutual benefit. State intervention in economic life Bunge allowed only in small amounts and in extreme cases. This view is not hindered, however, Bunge recognized the desirability of government intervention in the area of trade policy in the area "measures relating to enhancing the welfare of factory workers". Putting Bunge when he was Minister of Finance established his fame as a strict protectionists. In his theoretical views outlined in his course on police law, Bunge is not, however, unconditional protectionists. According to Bunge, customs duties and taxes are to be regarded primarily as a lodge. They should both be less dependent on trade agreements, should be obscheyu was in compliance with the tax system, with their influence on production, trade and consumption. Encourage industry can and should take place. But the protective tariff and benefits common to all persons who give encouragement indiscriminately and therefore not always desirable. Benefits often indicate wastefully in the public sector. Liberal tariff enhances consumption, but low tariffs with high taxes are undesirable. With regard to the laws regarding workers, . then, . is in recognition of the beneficial effects of competition, . Bunge believed, . that freedom of transactions would be broken, . if the workers had no right to enter into agreements among themselves regarding the establishment of wages,
. Not agreeing with the liberal school, . objected to the use of strikes, . Bunge, . unless, . not seen in the unions working instincts for the proper development of social life, and considered the trade-unions step backward in comparison with medieval shops,
. Considering the task of legislation in the field of economic life guarding freedom of transactions, Bunge did not allow any restrictions on the rights of private property. In his view, the injustice of the original purchase with the passage of time diminished, because the owner puts into the land of their labor, their capital, and pays taxes on the land. Economic freedom not only helped uplift humanity to a higher level of welfare, but in the future should serve as an indispensable factor in. Capitalist production, the rule of competition gives people hope for a better future and make it free. In their methodological views Bunge belonged to the historical and statistical trend in political economy, but has made it a number of restrictions. Not agreeing with Rochereau, . Bunge believed, . that the historical trend can make in science and in practical life unprincipled "opportunism", he found a dangerous lack of any kind has been started, . grounds, . rules and the adoption of management of historical examples, . an attempt to follow them in cases, . erroneously recognized homogenous already lived on humanity,
. Demanding great caution in applying the deductive method, Bunge insisted on mastering the political economy of the method of positive knowledge, observation and experience. In addition, a historical sketch of Economic Studies ", first printed in 1868. and giving a summary of the teachings of the most prominent economic thinkers, . from mercantilist and ending the historic school, . Bunge gave a detailed description of the extensive articles specially exercises Carey ( "The theory of consent of private interests - the first political-economic doctrine Carey", . 1858) and J.-St,
. Mill (John-St. Mill, as an economist, 1868). These articles, together with a small extraction of the articles of Schmoller Menger attached to the "historical overview of economic theories, and with considerable critical additions, revisions and amendments were published in 1895. under the general title "Essays on political economy". This was the last work of Bunge. - Wed: P. Migulin, "Russian state credit" (I so, Kharkov, 1899); Kovalko, "The principal reforms undertaken N.H. Bunge in the financial system of Russia "(Kiev, 1901), and. Taburno, "Conceptual survey of financial and economic state of Russia for the past 20 years (1882 - 1901) (St. Petersburg, 1904); M. Sobolev, "History of the customs policy of Russia (St. Petersburg, 1911)," History on the introduction of income tax "(the official publication); Schulze-Gaevernitz," Essays on the social economy and economic policy of Russia "(1901). S. Zagorski.

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BUNGE Nicholas Hristianovich, photo, biography
BUNGE Nicholas Hristianovich, photo, biography BUNGE Nicholas Hristianovich  Financier, economist and statesman, photo, biography
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