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Buslaev Fyodor Ivanovich

( famous philologist)

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Biography Buslaev Fyodor Ivanovich
photo Buslaev Fyodor Ivanovich
(1818 - 97), was born in Kerensky (Penza province), where his father was secretary of the district court. 5-years lost his father and his mother moved to Penza. Here Buslaev enrolled in school and at the end of her course in 1834. enrolled student at the Moscow University Faculty verbal. After graduating from the course in 1838, Buslaev was appointed a lecturer in the 2 nd Moscow high school, and next year went with the family of Count S.G. Stroganoff abroad, where he remained two years, moving from Germany to France and Italy and mainly engaged in studying the monuments of classical art. Upon returning to Moscow (1841) took a teaching position in the 3rd high school, while at the same time place a private tutor in the family of Count Stroganov, and since 1842, Mr.. was assigned as assistant professors I.I. Davydov S.P. Shevyryov. At the same time Buslaeva name first appears under several scientific articles and reviews (in Moskvityanin "). The attention of the young scientist was drawn in particular the historical study of Russian language, to which he applied under the influence of "German Grammar" Jacob Grimm - this classic work, laid the foundation of historical grammar. In 1844, Mr.. Buslaev issued a remarkable book on his time on teaching the national language "(2 vols. 2-e, abbr. publication in one volume, Moscow, 1867), in which a lot of space devoted to consideration of the Russian historical grammar and style. With regard to style it presents a rich selection of facts drawn from well-known at the time of the ancient monuments of our literature, with many dark and mysterious in the language of these sites received an apt explanation. In many of its parts, this book is useful and instructive, even now. Around this time Buslaev became friendly with a circle of Moscow slavophiles: Khomyakov, K. Aksakov, AND. Kireyevsky etc.. Proximity to Kireevsky, who became in 1845. Editor Moskvityanin ", . enabled Buslaeva become a permanent employee of the magazine division of the bibliography and criticism, . he was in charge, . placing at the same time it reviews a number and two more extensive article on "Lay" in the publication Dubenskov and the "general grammar" I.I,
. Davydova. Since 1847, Mr.. Buslaev began to lecture the Russian language and literature at Moscow University as a teacher, and in 1848. published master's thesis "On the influence of Christianity on Russian language. Experience the history of language on Ostrom Gospel ". This work has more archaeological or cultural-historical nature, . than strictly linguistic, and some of the questions raised by them later with greater precision and definiteness were considered Mikloshichem ( "Christliche Terminologie"); since opened in general a lot of new materials for the supplements, but in the whole study Buslaeva and still remains one of the remarkable for its time history of the language tests, . understood in connection with the movement of life and culture,
. Based on the comparative study of the Gothic translation of the Bible, . Buslaev argued, . that the Slavic language long before Cyril and Methodius was influenced by Christian ideas, . and that the translation of the Holy Scriptures in the Slavic language related to that stage of national life, . when the language has prevailed in full force concept of family relations, . whereas in the language of the Gothic and drevnenemetskogo translation of the Holy Scriptures noticed a much greater development of concepts of public,
. "In the history of the Slavic language seen a natural transition from the concepts of family, in spite of the pristine purity of it surviving to the concepts of civil life. Collisions with alien peoples, and translated the Holy Scriptures of the Slavs learned from the limited domestic relations, reflected in language, consciousness and the universal alien ". In 1855, . in the jubilee edition of the Moscow University, "Materials for writing the history of the eastern, . Greek, . Roman and Slavic ", . available labor Buslaeva "paleographic and philological materials for the history of the Slavic alphabet", . - A number of lexical and grammatical extractions from manuscripts, . the most part of the Russian edition,
. In this work he first deals with the history of art (an interest in ornamentation), which started back in 1849, studying the iconic "original" and illuminated manuscripts. At the same time Buslaev not leave and their grammatical classes, the fruit of which was released in 1858. its "Experience the historical Russian grammar", . has stood since several publications and long time, . despite shortcomings, . save the value of a primary labor, . abundant material, . carefully extracted from a huge number of monuments, . - Labor, . whose influence was felt in many subsequent studies, . on Russian linguistics,
. Of particular interest is the 2-nd that "Grammar", is a Russian historical syntax. This work was written on behalf Buslaev YA.I. Rostovtsev, as a guide for teachers. In close connection with this work is also compiled on behalf of Rostovtseva Historical Chrestomathy of the Church Slavonic, and ancient languages (1 ed., . M., . 1861), . - A very important collection, . containing a, . among the many already well-known text, . many of, . which were first published by the originator, all texts are provided with detailed historical and literary and grammatical notes,
. By the end of the 50-ies about Buslaeva already formed a circle of his disciples. Became possible to establish a special edition of one of the best students Buslaeva, NS. Tikhonravov headed - known "Annals of Russian literature and antiquities, which, together with the editor and his teacher attended, and many other young representatives Buslaevskoy Science School. In 1860, Mr.. Buslaev was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences. Along with the history of language Buslaev studied Russian folk poetry and ancient art. One of the external stimulus to these studies served Buslaev received in late 1859, Mr.. from Count swt. Stroganov invitation to read the heir to the throne Nikolai Aleksandrovich course "History of Russian literature, including its significance, as it is an expression of spiritual interests of the people". For this Buslaev had to move to St. Petersburg, working at the same time towards the preparation of an extensive collection of articles and monographs under the title "Historical Sketches of Russian folk literature and art" (2 large volumes, St. Petersburg., 1861). In the first volume are placed on the study of folk poetry: first - the head, . with the subject of poetry in connection with the language and people's daily life, then - the study of Slavic poetry in comparison with the poetry of other peoples (Germanic, . Scandinavian); further - National Poetry Slavic tribes in general and, . Finally, . - Russian,
. The second volume dealt with the popular elements of ancient literature and art. The author is a devoted follower grimmovskoy School, . with its doctrine of the identity of the bases of popular mythology, . customs and legends - school, . which are now given way to a theory of mutual communication between the peoples in oral and written traditions,
. Much, . that appeared 30 years ago, the hereditary property of one or another nation, . now recognized as a casual borrowing, . taken from the outside due to various circumstances, . more or less explained by the historical paths, . which were different cultural influences,
. Thus, most of the "Essays" Buslaeva now, according to the method is already outdated, even though they embody a lot of interesting and valuable material. The same is true of several of his articles, published in 1862 - 71 years in various publications, and reiterated in his book "Folk Poetry" (St. Petersburg, 1887), which is like a direct continuation of the "Sketches". In 1861, after finishing his teaching Tsarevich, Buslaev went back to Moscow and resumed his lectures at Moscow State University, receiving his doctorate from the Russian literature, when he was appointed full professor. In 1863, Mr.. Buslaev published the second edition of his grammar, significantly amended and supplemented, and went again abroad, with the intent to do the history of art (mainly for the study of Russian iconography, miniatures and ornaments). During his travels Buslaev was elected secretary of the Society of Old Russian art, based in the Rumyantsev Museum on his own initiative. Two years later (in 1866) left a large volume of works that society "Collection of the Society of Old Russian art, with a long row of small articles and reviews Buslaeva and his great treatise" The general concept of the Russian icon ", . has the same importance for the history of ancient art, . as "Historical Sketches of Russian folk literature" for the history of popular Russian literature and writing,
. In 1869, Mr.. He has published his "Textbook of Russian grammar, a rapprochement with the Church Slavonic, and the next 1870. - "Russian Readings. Monuments of Old Russian literature and folklore, historical, literary and grammatical explanations, a dictionary and a pointer to the medium-schools ". Both these books are in connection with the earlier of its purely scientific work: "historical" grammar and anthologies, presenting their processing and adaptation to school teaching. In 1870, Mr.. Buslaev went to a third its scientific trip abroad, to study the relationship miniatures to the text in Byzantium and the West. In 1874,. Buslaev took fourth trip abroad. The following years were devoted primarily to research in the field of ancient and Byzantine art. Particularly interested in the so-called facial Buslaeva Apocalypse. Studying their manuscripts in Russian libraries, Buslaev soon came to the need to collate them with the foreign and in 1880. again went abroad to work in libraries. Next 1881. He left the chair at the University of Moscow and all gave in his research that resulted in 1884. edition of the "Explanatory Apocalypse" from manuscripts VI-X, XVII centuries., with an atlas of 400 drawings, representing a very important contribution to the history of Russian facial images. In 1886. Buslaev published a collection of his articles, 1851 - 81 years, under the title "My spare time" (2 vols.). The first volume contains small articles on the history of classical art, . medieval and modern, in the second - mainly articles of historical and literary content ( "Illustration poems Derzhavina", . "Perekhozhie story", . "The significance of the novel in our time", etc.),
. The following year saw a collection of "The People's Poetry. Historical Essays "(St. Petersburg, 1887). In 1888. winners celebrated fifty years of scholarly activity Buslaeva, during which he received a long series of addresses, greetings and other evidence of general respect and appreciation of its scientific merit. By the end of his life he lost his vision and wrote little, the last major labor, . come out of his pen, . were detailed and in many respects interesting "Memoirs", . printed in the Journal of Europe "for 1891 - 92 years (a separate publication:" My memories ", . M., . 1897),
. Additions to him appeared in the Journal of Europe "for 1896. and in the collection "The initiative" in 1896. Since 1908. the publication of his "Works", published by the Academy of Sciences (m. I, 1908. and t. II, 1910). See. of Buslayev biography AI. Kirpichnikova ( "Critic-Bibliographic Dictionary SA. Vengerov, t. V, St. Petersburg., 1897), where there is an almost complete list of individual prints and books in the "Russian books" SA. Vengerov, t. III, 322 - 325), on the anniversary Buslaeva cm. "Philological Notes" (Voronezh, 1889); DV. Aynalov, "The value of FI. Buslaeva in Science History of Art "(Kazan, 1898), four speeches delivered by the department in meeting Comenius January 21, 1898, Mr.. Professor AI. Sobolev, Academician AA. Shakhmatov, Professor NI. Zhdanov and VA. Voskresensky (St. Petersburg, 1898); E.K. Redin, "Review of works FI. Buslaeva on the history and archeology of art "(Kharkov, 1898). List of biographical material and references to Buslayev cm. y SA. Vengerov, "Sources of dictionary of Russian writers," t. I, St. Petersburg., 1900. S. Bulich.

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