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Butlerov Alexander

( famous Russian chemist and a prominent public figure)

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Biography Butlerov Alexander
photo Butlerov Alexander
(1828 - 86). Initial education Butlerov received in Kazan. In 1844, Mr.. he entered Kazan University at the natural level physics and mathematics, where in 1849. and graduated from the course with a degree candidate; next year Butlerova was instructed to read the university lectures on physics and physical geography of physicians and inorganic chemistry for naturalists and mathematicians, in 1851. He received a Master of Chemistry. Butlerov received his doctoral degree in early 1854, Mr.. at Moscow University, and returned to Kazan was elected to the extraordinary, and in 1858. confirmed in the rank of full professor. In early 1868. Butlerova invited, on the initiative of Professor DI. Mendeleev, in St. Petersburg University, where since February 1869. He began lecturing, and in 1870. arranged in the university department of chemical laboratories for special work on organic chemistry. Shortly after moving to St. Petersburg Butlerov (early 1870) was elected a member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences and was in charge first with Zinin, and then one of the academic chemical laboratory. Butlerov died with the rank of Distinguished Professor of St. Petersburg University, . ordinary academician of the Imperial Academy of Sciences and Professor of Chemistry Higher Women's Courses, . honorary member of the state universities of Kazan, . Kiev and Moscow, . Medical Academy, . various scientific societies in Russia and abroad,
. Butlerov, as a chemist and founder of an entire chemical school, enjoyed the noisy fame not only for us but even more abroad. Besides, . Butlerov, . interested and engaged in some departments of Applied Life Sciences, . a lot of trouble in this area, . and many reached, . especially in the field of beekeeping, . where persistent activity in practice and in print again called for the life of Russian beekeeping,
. Also known in the field of promoting and investigating phenomena such as mediumship. Butlerov formed and left behind in Russia a whole school of researchers in organic chemistry, to develop this science in the spirit of ideas and techniques of his teacher. Butlerov and in the laboratory, and in his office was always available and trainees chemist and amateur beekeepers, and foreign visitors (cm. excellent speech i.i. Gustafsson in the Journal of Russian Chemical Society, 1887). Entrenched since the mid 60-ies of expression in Chemistry: "Butlerov direction", "Butlerov School" preserved in all their force, and so far. Called this area Butlerov because, . Butlerov that was one of the creators of a new scientific principle - the "chemical composition", . so in particular the full application and development of the latter, . posited them in the foundation and teaching, . and all the scientific papers, . made by him personally and his disciples,
. The first pioneers of the school Butlerova learned from first-hand not only work with a kind of laboratory techniques and methods of research materials, . and special methods of treating the subject of investigation, . which particular subordinate and shone brightly on a single general principle,
. Since the late 50-ies are beginning to appear Research simplest organic compounds with one carbon eral resources in the, . initiated in the laboratory Butlerova Wurtz in Paris, . continued in Kazan and gave way science education, . properties and transformation of substances, . whose importance for the science and practice more and more increases,
. So, mention the prepared Butlerova methylene iodine, CH2J2 (from the action of iodoform C2H5ONa). On the basis of methylene iodide and oxalic-acid silver Butlerov received a so-called oksimetilen, (CH2O) n, when heated turns into a simple aldegid (ant), and again when cooling rolling in solid, polymeric state. Interest and importance of the latter compound are high, because even in 1861,. Butlerova have effect on oksimetilen lime water to prove the first time the possibility of obtaining an artificial sacchariferous beginning, he named metilenitanom. Only later, . when there was an entirely new research methods and the allocation of sugary started, . authority in this area - Emil Fischer - rekindled interest in the first synthetic glucose, . which in its properties is not very easy to guess in the early 60-ies a synthetic glucose,
. After 1861. Butlerov stands with a number of theoretical and critical articles, which set forth the principal grounds of the doctrine of "the chemical structure of substances". We say here: "On the chemical structure of matter" (1861), "On the different ways of explaining some cases of isomerism" (1863, in Erlenmeyerovskom "Kritische Zeitschrift f. Chemie ", and" Scientific Memoirs of the Kazan University). This doctrine was and is of course to determine the chemical relationship and mutual association of individual elementary atoms comprising the particle of the body. Since the structural (from the German expression "structure = Struktur", . imposed by Butlerova replace the term "constitution") doctrine Butlerova, . based on few assumptions, . was based on facts already known, . explaining them and predicting new, . then its a final recognition and strengthening could occur only after a full trial it by new and new experiments,
. These, then proceeded Butlerov since 1863. A number of his classic work begins with the opening of the first tertiary alcohol - trimetilkarbinola (cm. Butyl alcohol) and the synthesis of its other homologues. Little later, . studying the derivatives of this alcohol, . Butlerov unveiled another, . no less important in the history of organic chemistry study of two saturated hydrocarbons ended S4N10, . which with clarity and brilliance proved the study of chemical and physical properties of isomers open them again trimetilformena with di-ethyl (cm,
. Bhutan). Leaving aside the considerable number of works, . Butlerova produced in the period prior to the 70-ies, . we mention only those, . which according to their importance are included in the basic course of organic chemistry: "Determination of vapor density of the methyl lead compounds (plumbpetrametila)" and "On some hydrocarbons CnH2n", . which describes isobutylene from trimetilkarbinola, . and "Investigation of certain transformations of zinc-bromide",
. From the Petersburg period of chemical activity Butlerova special attention should be given his work, important in theoretical terms, over the installation of the phenomenon of polymers in the ethylene series of hydrocarbons. In the vast memoir "On the isobutylene (1876 - 77) is shown in several rows of completely new, so to speak, the dynamic view of the importance of making the conditions on the structure of certain substances. Butlerov published several articles and memoirs on the study of condensation products of isobutylene, . "On the structure of certain unsaturated hydrocarbons" (1870), "On the physical properties of trimetilkarbinola" (1871), "On the trimethyl-acetic acid (1872 - 74);" pentamethyl-Ethological and many other less extensive, . and its theoretical interest yielding given us above,
. Continuity Butlerov ideas and trends most clearly appears in the following comparisons of the work of his students and disciples of the latter work. Opening Butlerova synthesis marginal tertiary alcohols gave rise to the discovery of interesting synthesis of unsaturated tertiary and secondary alcohols to the Kazan successor Butlerova in the laboratory - Zaitsev and his numerous students. Scattered in numerous articles Butlerova various observations on the phenomena of isomerization and other abnormal reactions, . as well, and especially the attendant concerns about the "mechanisms of reactions" have served to develop many of particulars and discovery of generalizations in the spirit of structured exercises for Morkovnikova, . Zaitseva, . Lvov and their students,
. Number of pupils Butlerova who worked on his themes, and under his leadership, very much. For a thorough acquaintance with the personality and the writings of the late Butlerova we note speech professors: i.i. Gustafsson, п░.п°. Zaitsev VV. Morkovnikova placed in the Journal of the Chemical Society "for 1887; speech Professor Lagermarka," п░.п°. Butlerov "(Kharkov, 1887); speech of professors of the Kazan University п░.п°. Zaitseva, I.I. Kanonnikova, NM. Melnikov and AI. Jacobi (Kazan, 1887); Professor NP. Wagner, "Memoirs of п░.п°. Butlerova "(placed in a published AN. Aksakov "Collection of articles п░.п°. Butlerova of mediumship, St. Petersburg., 1889). Numerous studies Butlerova appeared simultaneously in Russian and foreign languages. - Classic Butlerova textbook "Introduction to the complete study of Organic Chemistry," first published in Kazan during the 1864 - 66 years and in 1868. was translated with additions under the editorship of the author in German under the title: "Lehrbuch d. organischen Chemie zur Einfuhrung in das specielle Studium derselben "(ц▀ц╞ц╤.). With this edition checked against the Petersburg posthumous publication Butlerov "Introduction", edited by his students in 1887, Mr.. For those who want to get acquainted with masterly exposition exercises on the chemical structure "shall refer to the excellent booklet Butlerova, . published a year before his death, . in 1885: "The chemical structure and the theory of substitution, . with the application of article: contemporary significance of the theory of chemical structure ",
. Besides, . we point at a public brochure Butlerova: "Basic concepts in chemistry", . published in the year of death (March 1886), . as well as a book on beekeeping for the peasants: "Bee, . her life and the rules defining bee "(1871), . endure a lot of publications,

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Butlerov Alexander, photo, biography
Butlerov Alexander, photo, biography Butlerov Alexander  famous Russian chemist and a prominent public figure, photo, biography
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