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Vasily I Dmitrievich

( Grand Duke of Vladimir and Moscow)

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Biography Vasily I Dmitrievich
photo Vasily I Dmitrievich
eldest son of Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy. Born in 1371, came to the throne in 1389, Mr.. As in nature, and on the conditions prevailing in part during his father, Basil could have little influence on the policies of the great reign. After Tohtamysheva pogrom in 1382. sent his father to the Horde be represented in a dispute over the table with the Grand Prince of Tver Mikhail Aleksandrovich, Basil withheld was there as a hostage for the 8000 first duty of the Grand Prince of Moscow. After spending two years in the Horde, he escaped to Moldavia and in Lithuania, where he had seen the Vitold and where it was decided the marriage with Sophia Vitovtovna (concluded in 1391), accompanied by the Polish-Lithuanian entourage returned to Moscow only in January 1387, Mr.. In 1389, Mr.. father was dying, she bequeathed him to obey his boyars, whose influence on Basil have documented. Received under the will of the Don as a fiefdom of the Vladimir principality, he was put on the table in the Grand Duke Vladimir Khan's ambassador. Don's death opened the way to the metropolitan department in Vladimir Kyprianou, a famous Bulgarians put to the Russian metropolitan in 1387, Mr.. and recognized in Lithuania earlier, . than he was admitted to Moscow that broke sharply and definitely pursued by Metropolitan Aleksei National Policy Chair, . and was nominated by her opposite, . maintains political dominance Vitovta, . the idea of convergence of the Catholic Church in Lithuania with the Greek Orthodox,
. Western policy is subordinate to Moscow, thus species Vitovta. But in the East, through the experience of 80 years and skillful politician in the Horde Muscovite boyars, Basil opened the possibility of success in a territorial unit gathering of Russian lands, since his time who have been on a solid path. Adoption of the great reign to the approval of the Horde ensure Basil diplomatic victory over the claims of his uncle, Vladimir Andreevich, who left were from Moscow to Novgorod, where he apparently did not find strong support. Also in 1389, Mr.. the contract was made (Collection of the State Literacy and treaties, t. I, N 35), admitted for the price of territorial concessions Basil uncle (Portage-Lamsky and Rzhev) Velikoknyazheskaya power and the subordination of his uncle. One clause provided for the possibility of extension (Moore, Tarusa and "other places") holdings Basil. With secured peace on the western boundary (the treaty with Great Novgorod in 1390, married Sophia in 1391) in 1392, Mr. Basil. I went to the Horde, where Moscow's money and, perhaps, the danger from an impending Tamerlane had given him the label of the grand duchy of Nizhny Novgorod, Gorodets, Meshchora, Moore and Tarusa. Nizhny Novgorod Prince Boris Konstantinovich was unable to defend either his, horde in 1389, Mr.. confirmed the right nor the City: Nizhny Novgorod was captured by the Moscow boyars betrayal of the local nobility, with Vasily Rumyantsev, the head, there dwelt Moscow governors. After the death of Boris Konstantinovich in prison (1393) Vasily had to fight for their purchase nephew Boris, Semen Dmitrievich; in 1401, Mr.. could lead him to renounce claims to the inheritance. Seeds of Death in 1402, Mr.. Nizhny Novgorod issue was resolved in a favorable way to Moscow for a long time. Invasion of Tamerlane, zadevshee vostochnorussky south, but not penetrated to Moscow, in 1395, Mr.. upset Tohtamyshevu Horde in the Volga lower reaches and thrown out on the Volga up to the Kama Tatar masses, . threatened the Russian borderlands in the east (1000 Detachment Eytyaka prince walked with Semen Dmitrievich in Nizhny Novgorod in 1395, in Kazan and Mordvin lands he found shelter and support and in time),
. Prince of Moscow task was defense ethnographic boundaries, and subsequently the onset of colonization in the East. In his hands he turned the key trade movement down the Volga, and a new source of influence in Veliky Novgorod: the increasing power of Moscow to Veliky Novgorod on the Volga had more to fear for their Dvina and other ground, . so weakly associated with the metropolis and economically watching over the South, . than in the West,
. Immediately on accession of the Nizhny Novgorod principality Basil demanded from Veliky Novgorod black boron knyazhchiny and the Metropolitan Court (repealed in 1385, Mr. veche. not reduced despite the requirement of Metropolitan Cyprian, in 1391) and supported the unfulfilled demand military expedition in Torzhok Portage-Lamsky and Vologda. Novgorod said the attack on Ustyug and Beloozero, but then asked the world, which was signed "in antiquity" (1393), with payment of a black boron and indemnities and the abandonment of the decree on the abolition of the Metropolitan Court. An attempt to wrest from Veliky Novgorod to "land" soon became possible - the cost of national humiliation. 1395 was critical for Moscow in this sense: the only chance saved it from ruin Tamerlane; Vytautas began an offensive in the east, taking Smolensk and sent troops to Ryazan, where hid one of the princes of Smolensk. Basil not only made to protect the Russian regions, but together with Metropolitan Cyprian was in 1396. Smolensk visiting Vitovta, where the negotiations (on church affairs in Lithuania) has successfully conducted the Metropolitan. After the defeat Vitold Ryazan, he was honorably received Vasily at the Moscow area in Kolomna. It also resolved were joint action against Novgorod the Great, has entered into an unwanted Vitold and indifferent to Moscow's treaty with the Germans. Embassy Basil demanded in 1397, Mr.. in Novgorod cancel this contract, but to no avail. But at the same time was sent to the Dvina invitation to secede from Novgorod and Moscow to kiss the cross. Dvinyane accepted the offer. From Novgorod were deprived Portage-Lamsky, Torzhok Bezhetsk top and Vologda, but in 1398, Mr.. Novgorod back taken away, and Basil had to make peace again, for old times': Vytautas was occupied by a different plan (recovery Tokhtamysh the Horde and alliance with them against Moscow) and "rozverz peace" with Basil. Vitovta defeat of the Vorskla River in 1399, Mr.. untied the hands of Basil; Moscow's troops in 1401, Mr.. again fighting in Zavoloche, on the Dvina, etc.. But fear recover from their defeat and turned again to the Russian north-east Vitovta, and here the affair ended in 1402, Mr.. world. In 1403, Mr.. Basil did not even dare to take on the service, with the land, one of the fleeing Vitovta Smolensk princes. Pskov was also seeking support against Vytautas. In 1406, Mr.. peace with Lithuania was torn, to Vyazma sent an army, he went up against Vassily Vitovta to the river, afloat, but before the battle has not arrived, and a truce was arranged for the year. Troubles in Lithuania have extended a year or two attempts to escape the influence of Vitovtovoy policy. In 1408, Mr.. (July), Basil took his hapless opponent Jogaila, . Svidrigailov, . with the princes of Zvenigorod, . Putivl, . Peremyshl'skii and Minsk and the boyars Chernigov, . Bryansk, . Starodub and Roslavl, . giving Svidrigailov city Vladimir, . Pereyaslavl etc.,
. Vytautas responded to this campaign to the Ugra river, where the floor and shelves in Moscow. Dmitrievich; distance was over this time eternal peace. Not here lie the interests of the visitors are offered, and from the east loomed Tatar storm on Moscow. The leader of the Horde Yedigei ratification in November 1408, Mr.. in Ryazan and Kolomna went to Moscow, he stopped in with. Kolomna, and from there within a month devastated the city of Moscow until the Nizhny Novgorod. Freed from the siege of Moscow for 3000 rubles, Yedigei was withdrawn because of Khan appeared in the Horde pretender to the throne of the Khan. Literacy Yedigei to Vassily, ensconced in Kostroma, explains the reasons for the expedition in the "Ulus" (as they called Rus Tatars) output of Russia from obedience to the Horde after its defeat by Tamerlane in 1395, Mr.. Under the influence of the circle of young boyars, with the treasurer Ivan Fyodorovich headed Cat (Collection of the State Literacy and treaties, t. II, N 15), the Moscow government stopped sending embassies to the Horde and the payment is still being collected tribute (chronicler tells of a "cultural" costs the princely court under 1404 g. - Construction in Moscow tower clock with the battle, "Chasnikov chyudnago and samozvonnago). Hike Yedigei rekindled claims ц-ц¬ц¬цгцёц-ц¦ц-цгц¦цLц-цL princely family took her heritage, her troubles in the Horde Basil convinced of the necessity of personal combat. At the same time with him (1412) went to the Horde, at the call of Khan, Prince Ivan Mikhailovich of Tver. Vasily Nizhny Novgorod has won the case in the new Khan Kerimberdeya; princes heirs resigned and came to Moscow (1416). In 1419, Mr.. Basil appointed his successor, his son Basil, attempt to take the written consent of the brothers, prompted protests from the departure of the younger, of Constantine, but he was not going to the Tatars, and in Novgorod: Horde had no reason to abandon a working tributary. To maintain the eternal peace and bowed relationship to Vitold Vasily Dmitrievich. Vain were the calls of Pskov to Moscow intercession (1423 - 1425). On his deathbed, Vasili instructed Vitold protect the rights of its ten-grand son. Were left at this time attempt to Veliky Novgorod. Of the 5 sons, Vasily Dmitrievich, four died during his lifetime (three - in infancy), daughter Anna in 1411, Mr.. been issued for the son of Byzantine emperor Manuel Paleologos, Ivan. B. R.

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