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Vasili IV Ioannovich Shujskij

( King of Moscow and All Russia)

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Biography Vasili IV Ioannovich Shujskij
Born in 1547, came to the throne May 19, 1606, deposed 17 July 1610, died Sept. 12, 1612, Mr.. "Older brother" among the princes, Rurik, . descendants of the elder brother of Alexander Nevsky, . Andrew, . Shuiskys always kept in the upper layers of the Moscow nobility and even in the era of the oprichnina, . through faithful service in the "new court" the sovereign, . constantly occur in the honorary position,
. Since 1580 the. the name of Prince Vassily starts fall into line; in 1581 and 1583 respectively, he was among the governor, sent to the shore, but in 1583. suspicious king for some reason he took on all his brothers railings on it. When Tsar Feodor, Prince Vassily was San Boyar, but without betraying any feat of arms as a military leader, nor as a man of counsel, did not acquire influence in the Duma, eclipsed by other, more talented representatives of its kind. In the spring of 1585, Mr.. He was sent to the Province of Smolensk, where he remained until 1587, Mr.. Opala, . befell Shuiskis and their supporters to petition the king to divorce with Irina, . touched and Basil, . but whether the insignificance of his role in the intrigue of his relatives against the king's brother, . influence whether the family ties (marriage to Princess Repnina he intermarried with Romanovsky circle, . then close to Godunov, . and by his wife of his brother Demetrius was in the property with him), . or both together were the reason, . that Basil was soon returned to Moscow,
. Prior to 1590, Mr.. his name is not found neither in the lists of provincial governors in the shelves and in the cities, not among those invited to the king's table, or among the members of diplomatic negotiations. In 1590, Mr.. He sat first voivod in Novgorod, and in 1591, Mr.. him with Metropolitan Gelasi and Okolnichy A. Kleshnin, was charged with investigating the dark history of Uglich. The report of the Investigators, . explained the death of Prince randomly poraneniem in an epileptic fit and accused Nagois produced in turmoil and killings, . Many historians are prepared to see the manipulation of evidence, . Shuiski produced in order to gain favor with no pleasure in him ruler,
. But Prince Vasili continued service under Tsar Fyodor did not indicate the growth of his influence at court. And when Tsar Boris, occupying the third and first in the general Shuiskis place in the Duma, the sovereign, Basil did not play a major role. Boris, . suspicious of the boyars, . Shuyskiy then held in high esteem, . then removed him from the court (in 1600 - 01 years, . example, . Basil was voivod in Novgorod), . not allow him to get married (second marriage), according to some, . even filmed interviews with individuals, . who came to Shuiskis,
. Humble yourselves before the Godunov Basil, apparently, is not contemplating at this time of betrayal. And the king himself, obviously not believing him guilty of the substitution of the Pretender, after the Battle of Novgorod-Seversky entrusted to him and MSTISLAVSKI main command of troops sent against the Pretender. They inflicted a decisive defeat at Dobrynich (January 20, 1605), and then besieged Kromah. Called immediately after the death of Tsar Boris in Moscow, . Basil vowed agitated people in the impersonation of the applicant, . but then, . convinced of the fragility of the Godunov, . was, . on the instructions of some sources, . spread rumors about saving the prince, . June 1 question people have openly declared, . in Uglich, instead of Dimitri Popov's son was buried, and that Moscow is a true son of Ivan the Terrible,
. On the same day Godunovs were overthrown, Moscow recognized Dimitri and Prince Vasili and his brothers immediately began organizing a conspiracy against the new king, the recognition of which he contributed so. Strongly slowly Shuiskys not been sufficiently careful. The plot was discovered, and June 30, Prince Vasili, as the main culprit, was sentenced "cathedral" to death, was preparing to go to the scaffold "for the faith and for the truth". The king gave his life and sent into exile with his brothers, confiscating their estates. Soon Shuiskys been forgiven completely and returned to Moscow. Prince Vasili even managed to gain favor with the Pretender: received his permission to marry, . accompanied him together with a Pole, . when he traveled incognito to look at his bride's entry into the capital, . at the royal wedding performed honorable duty tysyatskogo,
. At the same time, as soon as he returned to Moscow, he had already created a new plot or joined arranged before him. By the end of 1605, Mr.. conspirators secretly instructed Ambassador Dimitri to convey to King Sigismund, that, dissatisfied with their king, they were ready to overthrow him. Since 1606, Mr.. informing the king of the secret enemies, but he did not believe these warnings. The conspirators, leading now to deal with great caution, acted well, cleverly taking advantage of discontent in the different layers of society, not neglecting to strengthen the slander of this discontent. Shuiskys allowed to move their long-standing relationship with the trade community in Moscow, was summoned to the capital a lot of servants, on the side of the conspiracy were involved prepared to march servitors, the decisive moment of prisoners released. And yet, in order to more accurately achieve the goal, the conspirators began an uprising on May 17 with false cries that the pans are going to beat the boyars and the king. It has long been perturbed arrogant, haughty behavior of the Poles, Muscovites began well for them, while the boyars dealt with the king, that barely managed to stop the massacre of Poles. Pretender killed. Nobles of the genus and Bright halo "pervostradaltsa, Shuya was the main candidate for the vacant throne. But there were other. "Shout out" to their crowd gathered May 19 to discuss the affairs, Shuya hurried, without waiting for the popular election, take power. Obliging friends immediately started in the Assumption Cathedral of the oath to Tsar Vasily. This country kings handful of followers, not popular among the people, the new king is well aware of the precariousness of his position and with great haste began by all means to strengthen its. In charters, . sent out to the cities immediately after the accession (from 20 May), . Vasili announced, . that came to the throne "for his kolenstvu", . yet, . speaking a deliberate untruth, . adds, . that he prayed to "be alone at the Moscow State sovereign" of spiritual and social rank and nobility, and "all people of the Moscow State",
. He hastened, not even waiting till the election of the patriarch, to sanctify their power to the realm of the wedding (June 1, 1606). Trying to destroy even the people who lived in the faith, . that the king Demetrius - indeed the son of Ivan the Terrible, . and refute rumors already about saving it, . Shuya in the charters definitely called his predecessor imposter Grishka Otrepyev and told its history, . ending with the death of his,
. Feeling, apparently, that he had so often change their testimony about Dimitri would not have adequate confidence, the king has made to their charters repentant recognition of the mother of Prince, that the only threats forced her to announce her son Pretender. He sent the incriminating documents Pretender, part found after his death, partly fabricated, and not always skillfully, the new government. Were were put in motion and literary works compiled by friendly Shuisky authors. Metropolitan Filaret, . The Naked and the others were sent to Uglich to find and move to Moscow, the remains of Tsarevich Dimitri, . which now, . According to the investigation against, . produced by the same Shuisky, . was declared killed minions, Boris and, . a martyr, . was named among the saints,
. In some people do not even believe in miracles, relics from the new saint, the more so - according to literacy, most perplexed and worried, as if waiting for something. To meet his accomplices Basil, . for accession to the throne, . kissed the cross in the, . that will judge all the truth, . not be put to disgrace the innocent and to listen to denunciations, . will not put any man to death, . "do not judge a real court with his boyars",
. This meant a return to antiquity, in which the aristocracy was to get re-involved in the management. But even among the boyars Shuisky not find support. Prince Vasily Golitsyn himself dreaming of the crown and had supporters. By the end of May, it was discovered in Moscow, a movement in favor of the transfer of the throne MSTISLAVSKI. The head of the Romanov Group, Metropolitan Filaret, is intended to be patriarchs, was removed back in Rostov, and other members of the group inspired Shuisky suspicion. Already the first of its Ambassador to Poland, said in secret that the boyars dissatisfied Tsar Vasily and would like to see in its place, or the most Wladyslaw Zygmunt. Faithful servants of the Pretender Shuya, fearing treason in Moscow, sent out carelessly in the cities, where they were intrigues against him: and others just spread rumors about saving Dimitri. Even the elderly, blind monk Stephen, "that was the king Simeon Bekbulatovich" seemed so dangerous Basil suspicious that he was ordered on May 29 take him away from the Kirillov monastery in Solovki custody. Such actions of the new king clearly showed that he did not intend to restrain their promises. This restored the boyars against him, watching him as his protege. Poles - friends and servants of the Pretender - had been planted in Moscow under guard, and then sent to the cities, even the ambassadors were detained and lived under the strict supervision. In Poland, was sent to the embassy (in June), with clear explanations and accusations of the king and nobles, are pleased to aiding Pretender. Rokosz prevented Sigismund to announce immediately the war in revenge for those killed in Moscow and for the detention of ambassadors, but the resentment of the Poles soon found an outlet in a different form. In May, June and July in Moscow recurring civil commotions, so dangerous that the Kremlin has sometimes resulted in combat readiness. Even more serious was the movement in Seversk Ukraine - the area of initial success of the Pretender, now sow discord, assuring all of salvation Dimitri Putivl military governor, Prince Grigory Shakhovskoi. The leader of the uprising in the name of Demetrius, Bolotnikov, raised the banner of social struggle. In its everywhere expenses, knave sheets, "he called slaves, peasants and Cossacks beat the boyars and rich, by promising to reward rank, estate, and wives killed. Rebel forces has grown rapidly. They even stuck servitors zaokskih cities with Pashkov, Sumbulovo and Lyapunov headed, remembering the generosity to them Pretender and awaited something good from tight-fisted and biased to the nobility Shuisky. Royal troops suffered setbacks, the rebels in two ways went to Moscow, and in October, the capital was under siege. On the side of the rebels came, but not for long, some Western cities zamoskovnyh; in Nizhny Novgorod field rose Mordvinians. Fermentation notice in Perm and Vyatka, in Novgorod and Pskov. In the suburbs of Pskov archers proclaimed king still appears before Dimitri; in Astrakhan, as did Prince voivod Khvorostinin, brother remote Shuiski kravchego Pretender. Rathi king going slowly, but he helped the absence of Demetrius and social discord among the crowd under the banner of Bolotnikov. November 15 started out to Shuisky Ryazan nobles with Lyapunov and Sumbulovo and 2 December, the day of the decisive battle, which were reinforced by the king gave Bolotnikov last changed Pashkov and his troops. Bolotnikov locked in Kaluga, which is besieged with a large army Mstislavskii. Sheremetev sent to pacify Astrakhan, and in Moscow took a different kind of struggle with sedition. Revolt Bolotnikova clearly showed how weak link between the king and the people, how easy or carried away by disgruntled ghost Dimitri leave Shuya and Vasil decided once again to the influence of religion to bind the hearts of subjects. In February 1607, Mr.. in the Assumption Cathedral caused specifically "for his state and Zemsky great cause", the former Patriarch Job solemnly allow people from sin, violation of oath of allegiance to Boris and the Pretender, and persuaded to cease hostility and discord and loyally serve the newly elected king,
. At the same time, the government sought to weaken the social background of motion, strengthening supervision of the serfs and peasants, who have made the bulk of the troops Bolotnikov. Decree of 7 March 1607, repealed by later orders in 1609, forbade the keeping of voluntary slaves without formal fortresses and actions to meet the masters "of bondage" with such unfortified slaves. Code of the Nomads on March 9 of that year stopped the peasant output, sets penalties for the reception of foreign farmers and 15-year-old claims of runaway serfs and peasants. Meanwhile, military operations were going badly for Shuya and near Astrakhan and Kaluga. Wanting to get rid of Bolotnikov, the king agreed to a proposal to poison the leader of the rebels Fiedler, but Fiedler, receiving money and making his way to Kaluga, over to the Bolotnikova. The spring to the aid of Kaluga was sent a detachment of Tula, where the prince sat Shakhovskoy and who appeared even under the tzar pretender Dimitri Petro. Royal governor Kaluga were broken, and freed from the siege Bolotnikov moved to Tula. In the summer, with a huge army, went under the Tulu and the king himself, breaking forward troops expelled the rebels in June, laid siege Tulu. The rebellious territory was given over to plunder. The besieged defended themselves desperately, and only on October 10, drowned dammed Upoy, surrendered. The Pretender Peter was hanged, drowned in Kargopol Bolotnikov, Shakhovskoi Kubenskoye banished to the lake, the small "thieves" masses sunk slaves or prisoners of war returned to the gentlemen were given to willing to bail, which also lead to bondage. Such massacre Shujskij paved the way for a new uprising. His bearers were tempered home, in Ukraine, volunteered Beat petitioned the king of the Cossacks and received a leave slaves. The brutal whipping antagonized Shuisky all affected by it. The triumph of the king returned to the capture of the capital of Tula and joyfully celebrated the wedding of his married Jan. 17, 1608, Mr.. Princess Buynosovoy-Rostov, which was engaged in the Pretender. In July 1607, Mr.. Starodub appeared in the long-awaited Demetrius, and soon got a new, more powerful wave of popular movement against Shuya. The new imposter had few true friends, even fewer believed in the truth of his royal descent supporters, but the name Demetrios, which found in him a particular carrier, it was necessary as a slogan, uniting all of the opponents of Shuya. Military action in the name of Dimitri gave reason to keep personal grudges, live someone else's goods. To the new Demetrius were the remnants of the army Bolotnikov, the Cossacks from the Don and the Dnieper, the Polish libertines, who with fading Rokosz getting nothing done at home and often threatened with lawsuits, finally, all the disgruntled Shuisky. In October, the impostor was already in Epiphanius, but after learning about the surrender of Tula, had fled to Orel, where the spring began a new offensive. 10 - 11 May under Bolhovom were defeated governor Shuisky in July impostor camped in the village Tushino near Moscow, where he was hosted by the present government, the Duma, orders, etc.. Numerous detachments of "Thief" Moscow blocked by intercepting the path leading to it and making it more difficult so the supply of provisions, laid siege to the Holy Trinity Monastery and scattered around the country, causing her to swear in the name of Dimitri. Of the major centers only Nizhny, Kazan, Kolomna, Ryazan and Smolensk were true for Shuyskiy; Novgorod hesitated, the other went over to the Tushinskogo Thief. The situation became critical Shuisky. True, he had in Moscow were collected large forces, and in the battles near the capital are not always men of Tushino prevailed. But among the nobility and the governor before the Moscow siege, was discovered "shatost" (the main culprits of treason were recognized relatives of the Romanovs, the princes Troyekurov and Katyrev-Rostov). Many started right away on Tushino - for example, close Romanov princes Sitsky and Cherkasky, brothers Trubetskois and pr. Reducing the transportation of the products raised the price of grain and caused public unrest. The deposition of cities are not allowed to hope for a speedy release of the capital on its own. Prisoner July 23, 1608, Mr.. armistice agreement with Poland for three years, eleven months, . with Poles from Tushino had to leave to your country, . not been implemented: the former in Tushino Poles refused to leave the Thief, . and released from captivity, Marina, . for which it was promised, . that it would not be called queen of the Moscow, . Once intends to Tushino, . recognized in the thief of her husband, . supposedly escaped from death on May 17,
. Under these circumstances the king to stay on the throne, and stop the confusion, sought the help of Sweden, which is from 1606, Mr.. strongly suggested its. In the summer of 1608, Mr.. this purpose in Novgorod was sent to Prince Mikhail Skopin-Shuya. February 28, 1609, Mr.. in Vyborg, a treaty was signed in Moscow on the defensive alliance with Sweden against Poland. At the price of concessions Korely with the county and waiver of Livonia Shujskij received several thousand mercenaries. With them and collected in the Novgorod servicemen people Skopin-Shuya began to spring clean of the men of Tushino town on the way to Moscow, but was forced to stay in Tver, as the Swedish squad refused to go further due to non-payment of wages. Meanwhile, staunch defense of Holy Trinity Monastery their senses alone, violence and looting perpetrated by the country's wandering around the detachments of Polish and Russian riders "thieves" have raised other, and with the end of 1608, Mr.. started an independent people's movement is not so much for Shuisky as against Tushin in defense of order and property. We got up trans-Volga peasants, . soon received a leading center in Vologda, . communicate with Moscow and Skopin-Shuiski; a struggle against men of Tushino and the Middle Volga and Oka, . where the head was lower, . relying on Kazan and came up with the Southern troops put down Astrakhan Sheremetev,
. By the end of 1609, Mr.. efforts of all the above men of Tushino troops were driven out of northern Zamoskovie. Troops Skopina-Shuisky Sheremeteva and joined in the Alexander settlement. It sent two detachments to help Trinity Monastery; besieged with new forces have caused the defeat of the Poles, and 12 January 1610. siege was finally lifted. In Moscow this time has been very anxious. The king did not enjoy the sympathy, and if many more were sitting with him in the siege, it was only because they feared the worst from Tushina. Departures discontented king to the Brigand become commonplace; developed a special type of flights, which, passing it to one, then the other side, trying to benefit from both governments. Were among those sitting in Moscow, such as Prince. Mstislavskii and AVR. Palitsyn, who was in correspondence with the Polish leaders of the thief and told them the information about the movement "villages" and other Skopina. Citizens complained and was ready to unrest; higher prices for bread and intrigue more than once caused these riots. February 25, 1609, Mr.. rebels with the princes of Roman Gagarin, . Dirty and Sumbulovo headed, . broke into the Kremlin, . demanded deposition Shuisky, . heckled standing behind the king of Patriarch Hermogenes and, . without achieving its, . a large crowd (about 300 people) drove off in Tushino,
. Even Hook-Kolychev Boyar, a longtime supporter Shuiskys victim with them in 1587, Mr.. and complained to the Tsar Vasily boyars, was convicted of plotting against the king, and in April 1609, Mr.. executed. There were rumors of an imminent regicide, and the dates assigned a "St. Nicholas Day" (May 9), the Ascension (May 25), then St. Peter's Day (29 June). In September, the siege of Smolensk began military action against Shuisky Sigismund, . freed from Rokosz, . Tsar Vasily disgruntled union with Sweden and anxious to take advantage of turmoil in Russia for territorial acquisitions or even expect, . on Applications boyars, . sit or put her son on the throne,
. In Tushino the Poles were the ambassadors from the king with a proposal to leave "TSARIK" and enter the service of Sigismund. Not expecting anything good for myself from the start of negotiations, the thief about January 6, 1610, Mr.. fled to Kaluga, where the Cossacks were pulled behind him and some of his "boyars" and in February came and Marina. Majority of Russian men of Tushino bureaucratic, with fiancц? Patriarch Filaret and Mikhail Saltykov headed, decided to ask his son Sigismund on the throne of Moscow. Feb. 4 at Smolensk had signed the terms on which men of Tushino Sigismund and the envoys agreed to enthrone in Moscow Vladislav. Much of the Poles entered the army of the king, the rest are not feeling strong enough to stay near Moscow, and lit the empty camp and went to the west (at the beginning of March 1610). Tushino fell, Moscow was released from the siege and 12 March joyfully greeted Skopina-Shuya, who is viewed as a liberator, and from whom they expected further exploits of the glory of the motherland. Ardent Lyapunov earlier sent the young hero of the proposal prevail in Moscow. The unexpected death of Skopina (April 25), in which rumor accused the king's wife's brother Demetrius, and Lyapunov openly - the king, deprived of support last Shuisky. In Moscow, to his former enemies was added in May otpolonenny the Poles Filaret Romanov. Lyapunov raised this rebellion, plans to erect the throne Prince V. Golitsyn. Unfortunate Klushinskaya battle (June 24), in which the king's troops, with the D. Shuiski headed, suffered a heavy defeat on Zolkiewski, decided the fate of "samoizbrannogo" king. Threatened with the Southern troops drawing close Thief, . falsely suggest Moscow depose the two kings and together choose a new, . the west - Zolkiewski, . also initiate anonymous letters population of the capital, . Muscovites do not want to fight for the unloved Basil,
. Gathered crowd on July 17, with Zach. Lyapunov headed, deposed the king and was imprisoned for his brothers Bailiffs. When I came the next day under ridicule men of Tushino, . now called kings in Moscow on his Demetrius, . Some began to think about returning to the throne Shuya, this was the patriarch Germogen, . but the enemies of the deposed forcibly tonsured him a monk (July 19) and concluded in Chudov Monastery,
. Hermogenes, however, acknowledged that the tonsure, and Shuya still hoping to return the crown. Came up to Moscow Zolkiewski, realizing how dangerous it is to succeed Vladislav presence in Moscow Shuisky demanded the extradition of his brothers, under the pretext they create unrest. Failing that, he, contrary Hermogen and his followers insisted on the translation of involuntary monk closer to the Polish border, in Joseph Volokolamsky monastery, and his brothers - in the White Castle. When leaving Russia, he has conquered them all with him and on October 31, presented at Smolensk Sigismund as prisoners of war. They were sent to Poland and survived the more solemn humiliation Zolkiewski extradition to the king and the nation at the Diet on Oct. 19, 1611, were placed in Gustynsky castle, where the former king, and died September 12, 1612, Mr.. In 1620, Mr.. Sigismund, solemnly moved his coffin in Warsaw, in purposely built mausoleum, and in 1635, Mr.. the remains of Tsar Vasily had been returned to Russia and buried in the Cathedral of the Archangel. - Literature. Kostomarov "Time of Troubles", t. II; Klyuchevskii "Boyar Duma"; Bestuzhev-Ryumin "Review of events from the death of Ivan the Terrible ..." (Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1887, July); SF. Platonov "ancient stories and legends about the Time of Troubles" and "Essays on the history of the Troubles in the Muscovite State"; Kostomarov "Russian history in biographies, t. I; SF. Christmas Tsar Vasily Shuisky and boyars "(" Historical Review ", t. V) and "King Basil Shuisky" in the book "People Time of Troubles"; C. G. SH. Prince VI. Shuya "(" Old and novelty ", Prince. II, 1906); DV. Tsvetayev "King VI. Shuya and place of his burial in Poland, t. I, 1910. About Shuia in Grozny, Fedor and Boris cm. in the literature about them. Sources listed in the above literature. Recently published: "The discharge records for the Time of Troubles" SA. Belokurova (in "Readings in the History and Antiquities, 1907, Prince. 2 and 3, and Dep.) And "Monuments of diplomatic relations with the Moscow state of the Polish-Lithuanian state", t. IV, 1598 - 1608 years, under the editorship of SA. Belokurova ( "Collection of the Imperial Russian Historical Society, t. 138, 1912). P. L.

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