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Vasilchikov Alexander Illarionovich

( Prince - the famous Russian writer and social activist)

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Biography Vasilchikov Alexander Illarionovich
photo Vasilchikov Alexander Illarionovich
son Hilarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikova. Born October 26, 1818, died in 1881. In 1835, Mr.. Vasilchikov entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. For that time it was a rare occurrence in the aristocratic families in which children are usually raised or at home, or their estates schools. After graduation Vasilchikov did not dare to enter the service - so few have attracted him to her in those days her condition. Vasilchikov searching for more live work. In 1840, Mr.. Baron Ghana was charged for the introduction of new administrative orders of the Caucasus. He was elected to the staff of young educated people, among whom was Vasilchikov. This mission gave then great importance, as the experience of a new citizenship, but a year later the work of Baron Ghana was stopped, and Vasilchikov retired. While Vasilchikova in the Caucasus, he was my second in a duel between Martynov and Lermontov, for which he was betrayed by a military court. Emperor Nicholas Pavlovich forgave him "into account the merits of his father". In 1845, Mr.. Vasilchikov joined in Part II His Majesty's own Office. With special attention Nicholas followed the way of thinking of those young people whose fathers held high positions in the service and used his position of. At the time of Vasilchikova possessing always much doleyu independence in the community began to express an opinion as a man with "freedom-loving" attitudes. Although this and found no particular fault, but all judgments Vasilchikova and disputes his society on the theme of "freedom of speech" did not look particularly well. Love of freedom of the young Vasilchikova soon became known, and the Tsar. According to one of his friends Vasilchikov once Nikolai Pavlovich even called him to himself, and sternly disapproving of his judgments in a society, are not recommended as a young man told him to "variable". At this Vasilchikov openly declared emperor, that he does not accept any guilt, then heard a vigorous repetition of the word "variable". His service Vasilchikov was not satisfied and soon moved to the province of Novgorod in the first post of the county, and later the marshal of nobility. This transition is explained by the following words of the Vasilchikova: "From early youth, I felt the emptiness of clerical services and the need to learn the life of the people and the order of service outside of St. Petersburg, . where everything seems to misrepresent, . - In the province and in the countryside, . where sadly and quietly flowing working life ",
. Head Vasilchikova for Part II, . Count Bludov, . decided not to report to the emperor of the transition Vasilchikova Province, . because, . that mindset Vasilchikova was considered not quite trustworthy, and that all representatives of the estates looked with suspicion,
. But Vasilchikov found support in the then minister of the court, Prince Volkonsky, who reported to the emperor of the new official status Vasilchikova. Live in the province for people like Vasilchikov, then it was difficult. In fulfilling its responsibilities under the letter of the law, Vasilchikov up a reputation as a dangerous man, because, in pursuit, ex officio leader, immoral and cruel landlords, he opened all the horrors of serfdom. The next triennium Vasilchikov he did not want to run for the leaders, he settled on his estate Kovno province and began farming. The development of the first assumptions about the emancipation of the peasants, but among those who called for this case, there was Vasilchikov, whom looked suspiciously. Then came the Crimean War, which attracted Vasilchikova the ranks of the militia. Chief of Staff of the army was his brother, Prince Victor Vasilchikova Illarionovich; through this Vasilchikov would know not only the facts but also the causes of our defeat. Unsuccessful war ended, the militia dispersed when the general mood of the best part of Russian society that "can not continue to live". Again, talking about the liberation of the peasants. Vasilchikov took an active part in private meetings and campaigned in favor of reform, being in close relationship with South. Samarin, and H. Milyutin. In an effort to more vigorous activity, he assumed the duties of a member of the Novgorod province on Peasant Affairs. From 1865 to 1872. was a vowel in Old Russian Novgorod district and provincial assemblies Zemsky. He participated as a major landowner in established under the Ministry of State Property (the so-called Valuev) "Commission for the study of agriculture and rural productivity in Russia", . which insisted, . that "the site of the advancement of agriculture lies in the tax reform",
. Since 1872. Vasilchikov was chairman of the St. Petersburg department of Slavic Committee. In the summer of 1881. Vasilchikov was invited, as an experienced person to participate in discussions on lowering the redemption payments. Literary activity Vasilchikova dealt with the most lively issues of the day, what he said as a journalist, was closely connected with his public activity. The first, in chronological order, is his pamphlet "The Russian administrator of the newest school, with a foreword YU.F. Samarin (BA, 1868). This is - the answer to the note of the Pskov governor (and later deputy minister of BH. Affairs), Obukhov, recommended, in its time, the Ministry of BH. Affairs of the attention of all Russian administrators. Most Vasilchikov rebel against the author of the note of the proposed intervention in the administration zemstvo case and systematic refusal zemstvo in support of the Government. He could not accept the fact that the mass of the Russian people - purely spontaneous force, "and that the urgent need for a minute -" assembly and connection of the conservative elements ". In the essay "On Self-Government" (1 st edition, . 1869; 2 nd Edition, . 1872), . written, . as stated in the preface, . in an era of doubt fruitful beginning, . made in the lives of Russian peasants and land reform, . Vasilchikov set out to resolve the issue, . what to do to implement the conditions, . in which people could enjoy the rights they obtained, . and the reform would bring the expected results,
. This question Vasilchikov allow consideration of the history of self-government in other nations. Giving an advantage in this respect, England, Vasilchikov defines self "as people's participation in the local internal management". An essential element of self-Vasilchikov recognizes the full autonomy of local authorities, within the law. This autonomy has been enhanced gradually, . and we can discern three periods in its formation: 1) the desire to, . that taxes and duties, . ustanovlyaemye central authority, . spread out on the field for reasons of local residents, 2) the order of the expenditure of fees Zemsky Zemsky local authorities and 3) the transfer to local control over the layout and the expenditure of fees, . as well as judicial functions,
. The question of whether government on Russian soil, Vasilchikov permits affirmative and finds that the slogan zemstvos is not social "fraternity" or political equality, and zemstvo equation. The basis of all life, he puts Zemstvo tenure; proper development Zemstvo organization should, in his view, lead to a peaceful resolution of all social, agrarian and political issues. The author points to measures, . which should contribute to "the estate clerk" well-being: the revision of laws on the transfer of companies, . expansion of colonization and put farmers state land, . transformation parish in obschesoslovnoe institution, . unit credit cooperatives and artisanal workers, . introduction of compulsory insurance against fire and livestock and the establishment of income tax,
. Attaches the greatest importance of the intellectual and moral education of the people, . Vasilchikov sees it two ways: training, . through schools, . and practical - through people's participation in local meetings and courts, . but because the principal organs of Russian government considers the national school, . zemstvo assembly and the Magistrates Court,
. Arguing against the view, . recognizing self unthinkable without the people's representatives, . Vasilchikov admits it, and under the most centralized form of government, . but believed, . that the proper development of self is bound to lead eventually to an agreement on local needs with the benefit of all States,
. In the pamphlet "Letter to the Minister of Education to Count Tolstoy from Prince Vasilchikov" (B., . 1875) Vasilchikov does not recognize the values of classicism antidote against the nihilistic ideas, he thinks, . contrary, . that the study of classical antiquity is more likely to settle in the young minds a tendency toward skepticism,
. Condemning the desire more difficult for the majority of access to education, Vasilchikov favor of a better device sredneuchebnyh institutions and for the opening of the doors to the university not only of high school students. In the essay "Land tenure and agriculture in Russia and other European countries" (1 st edition, . 1876; 2 nd Edition, . 1881) Vasilchikov asks the question: can a high degree of civilization be achieved in other ways, . without errors and injustices, . it marked the development of agrarian relations,
. The author does not think, . that all people should have to suffer the same vicissitudes, he finds, . that "Russia is in agrarian relations in a better position, . than other countries, that the property we have distributed more evenly, . than other nations, . and in the general fund of the national wealth is still with us quite space, . Free Domains, . to level the possible social irregularities ",
. Similarly Vasilchikov was convinced, . that Russian society in its historical development has not passed yet that fateful turn, . when the peace agreements and changes become impracticable due to, . that the interests of different classes of people, . touching each other and closely, . already entered into rivalry with one another and fight,
. This struggle in Russia there, . and therefore it is desirable, . "so we used the interim period, . when social relations we have not yet been finally established, . poresheniya for the truth and fairness of the agrarian question, . caused so much embarrassment to all the peoples of the ancient and the new world ",
. Vasilchikov found that the state must come to the aid of the agricultural class, pointing to the path to the migrations, providing it with the necessary means and for facilitating its taxable burdens. Not without interest ratio Vasilchikova to communal land tenure, which he considered necessary to retain a form of ownership of land, but by making it more legal relations. He found in the community, not a little artificial accretions and wanted to further suppress their custom was paralyzed, and that the custom was given an opportunity to improve. The appearance of the works Vasilchikova was almost an event. It was noted not only the most prominent at the time authorities of the Russian press, but also foreign literature. They were caused by the article Golovacheva, Kostychev, Leroy-Beaulieu, and Book VI. Guerrier and BN. Chicherina "Russian amateurism and communal land tenure" (Moscow, 1878). In the pamphlet "smallholder credit" (1876) Prince Vasilchikov belongs only to the first part, the need for the loan, the second, written by AV. Yakovlev, contains technical guidance for the implementation of credit. Also in 1876, Mr.. Vasilchikov wrote an essay on the Eastern question remaining is not printed. Excerpts from it, given a biographer of Prince Vasilchikov, Golubev, show that, in the opinion Vasilchikov, Eastern question created a desire to paralyze Russia's ties with the Slavic tribes. Recognizing the historical foundation of this connection, Vasilchikov favored the expulsion of the Turks from Europe and the impact of their territory the Slavs and Greeks. The latter, in time, brochures Prince Vasilchikov "Rural life and agriculture of Russia" (1881) is a concise synopsis of his book "Land Tenure and Agriculture". After the death of Vasilchikova appeared numerous articles about his activities, for example, aq. Gradovsky in the "Week" (1881, N 4), O.F. Miller's "Historical Messenger (1881, N 11), VY. Stoyunina in the "Observer" (1882, 1). All these reviews are given in the book A. Golubeva Prince AI. Vasilchikov. Biographical Sketch "(St. Petersburg, 1882). "Death, - said in an internal Review" The Messenger of Europe "(November 1881) - caught the prince Vasilchikov tireless, energetic fighter for the common good. Such books as "Land tenure and agriculture" - not only valuable literary work, but an honest deed. While, . when it is officially recognized peasant complete, . of the peasants - fully secured, . further improvement of their life - dangerous and neblagonamerennoy fantasy, . large landowner, . aristocrat by birth and position, . boldly went against the flow,
. At the risk of incurring, . indeed navlekshi on charges of "socialism", . He took the side of the community, . small holdings, . better distribution of land ownership among the various classes of the population, he deprived the opposite camp from claiming, . that such views are found only among the defenders, . have nothing to lose, . which leads to wealth envy and hatred of the rich. ",

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Vasilchikov Alexander Illarionovich, photo, biography
Vasilchikov Alexander Illarionovich, photo, biography Vasilchikov Alexander Illarionovich  Prince - the famous Russian writer and social activist, photo, biography
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