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Verstovsky Alexey

( Russian composer)

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Biography Verstovsky Alexey
Born February 18, 1799, Mr.. in the Tambov province, in a landlord family. He graduated from the course at the Institute of Railway Engineers, he studied music theory at the Brandt and Tseynera. By the very early period of musical creativity Verstovsky include piano sonatas, songs, couplets for vaudeville. Engineering career, he chose music and moved in the artistic world of St. Petersburg, not just speaking in private homes as an actor and singer. His opera-vaudeville "Grandma's parrots" (translated from French PI. Khmelnitsky) was set in 1819, Mr.. St. Petersburg, it was followed by the opera-vaudeville: "Quarantine" (1820), "The new prank, or Theater Battle" (1882, in collaboration with Maurer and Alyabiev), "The Madhouse, or Country Wedding" (1822); "sentimental landowner "(1822). Most had a success "Madhouse", walking on stage back in 1849. In 1822, Mr.. Verstovsky moved to Moscow, he joined the Moscow office of the Imperial Theaters. In 1825, Mr.. He was appointed "Inspector of the repertoire and troupes, and in 1842, Mr.. - Manager of the Moscow office. Verstovsky had almost unlimited influence on theatrical affairs. Great influence on the theatrical life had been, and his wife. In Moscow in the first period of his activities were staged one after another vaudeville with his music: "Teacher and pupil, . In another man's feast, or a hangover "(1822), . "Busybody, . Case or master of fear "in one act (1824), . "Fun Kalifa, . or jokes for one day ", . "Meeting Stagecoach, . "Thirty thousand people", . Three dozen "(the last four - in 1825),
. When you open the Petrovsky Theater in Moscow (1825) raised was the prologue to "Triumph of Muses", where the music belonged to the anthem Verstovsky. Last vaudeville with music Verstovsky (sometimes in collaboration with Alyabiev) set in 1827 - 32 years (Shepherd, an old woman, a fairy, or that women like, "from granting daughters to marry," "New Paris", "Stanislav", and "Roslavlev ). In a patriotic play Skobelev "silicon" which came in 1839, the song belongs to Nastia Verstovsky (its theme Vieuxtemps composed variations for violin). In 1827, according to swt. Aksakov Verstovsky began to compose the opera "Pan Twardowski" (libretto by Zagoskina), set in 1828, Mr.. in Moscow with great success. Opera Vadim, or twelve sleeping virgins, libretto by Professor S.P. Shevyrov Zhukovsky's poem of the same name (Part 2), was the first time in St. Petersburg in 1832. Real glory gave Verstovsky opera "Askold's Grave" (libretto Zagoskina), set in Moscow on September 16, 1835, in St. Petersburg - 27 August 1841, Mr.. with the famous Petrov in the role of the Unknown. Until the end of 1860 it was given in the imperial theaters - about 200 in St. Petersburg, in Moscow, more than 400 times. Later, to the opera - "Nostalgia" (1839), "Churov Valley, or dream in reality" (1841) and "Thunderbolt" (1858, libretto D. Lena on the first part of "Vadim" VA. Zhukovsky) far had little success "Askold's Grave" and soon left the repertoire. Verstovsky belong to more music to various dramatic works ( "Power of Hymns," 1817; "Hesiod and Olaf, 1827), cantatas and choruses, including" Three Songs, and Oswald "and" Singer in the camp of Russian soldiers ", cantata for words S.P. Shevyrov for celebration in January 1855, Mr.. anniversary of the Moscow University, . anthem for choir and orchestra "Great is the Lord", . Two military anthem, a few dozen songs, of which "The Black Shawl (Pushkin) and" Bell "performed with a stage, . a gypsy romance "The old man, . terrible husband "(Pushkin) performed more than once Pauline Viardot-Garcia, two Polish orchestra, three Masses with spiritual concert (1830), . performed in the churches of the university and of the Holy Ascension in Moscow (not published),
. In 1826, Mr.. Verstovsky with AI. Pisarev, issued a "Drama Album of 1826" in two parts, musical and literary; the final article is Verstovsky (unfinished): "Excerpts from the history of dramatic music". In 1827 - 1828 he. he published "Music Album". In this album contains some of his musical compositions. Since his retirement (1850) Verstovsky not only lost influence and, indeed, was forgotten (except for "Askold's Grave"). In a letter, . written in 1861, . He complains about the future: "For" Askold's grave "Moscow directorate gave me a lump sum, two thousand banknotes - collected as a hundred thousand silver income from the opera, . I now, . Being Retired, . must buy their own place in the theater, . to look at old my sins ... "He died November 5, 1862, Mr.,
. Value Verstovsky in the history of Russian music is based mainly on his operas, of which the most typical "Askold's Grave", and now occasionally appears on the Russian stage. In operas Verstovsky music gives way to conversation, as in vaudeville. Composition techniques perfected. Music does not receive the full development; vocal forms (solo, duet) are reduced to a number of verses with a repeating each verse music. The orchestra has no independent significance; orchestration primitive. She obviously made it difficult for a composer, and frequently he entrusted the job of Kapellmeister Theater. In the central music library of the Imperial Theaters kept score "Askold's Grave" with orchestration Voyachek. Verstovsky reflected in the operas of the Romantic movement which prevailed at that time and in Russian literature. Music sometimes very naive, despite the influence of Mozart and Weber. As the latter, and have Verstovsky noticed a tendency to fiction, but this element weakly expressed. The drama is almost absent. But in the music Verstovsky there are also stronger and more characteristic of. He was no stranger to humor, noticed that even Serov. Melodic creativity of its ease, . varied, . typical and is a national imprint, although the Russian warehouse and harmonization could not resist, . but this feature of his music makes it, . with Alyabiev, . predecessor Glinka, . in the establishment of a national Russian school of music,
. Manuscripts Verstovsky stored (according to his testament) in the Moscow Conservatory. - Wed. N. Findeyzen, "A. N. V. "(" Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters, 1896 - 97 years, 2 nd application). In "Russian Musical Gazette", 1899, N 1, printed list of works and bibliography Verstovsky about it.

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