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Volinskiy Artemy

( famous statesman)

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Biography Volinskiy Artemy
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(1689 - 1740). Comes from the ancient genus (cm. Volyn). His father, Peter Artemyevitch was under Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich solicitor, then stolnik, a judge of the Moscow doomsday order and voivod in Kazan. Volinskiy read a lot, was "a master of writing, had a fairly large library. In 1704, Mr.. He was enlisted soldier in the regiment of dragoons. In 1711, Mr.. was already a captain and earned the position of king. Consisting at Shafirov during the Prutskaya hike, he in 1712, Mr.. shared his captivity in Constantinople. In 1715, Mr.. Peter sent Volhynia in Persia, "in the character of envoy. His mission had two objectives: a comprehensive review of Persia and the acquisition of trading privileges for Russian merchants. Both orders Volinskiy completed successfully (1718), and was promoted to Adjutant General (the latter was then only 6) and in 1719, Mr.. appointed governor of the newly established province of Astrakhan. Here he soon managed to introduce some order in the administration, improve relations with Kalmyks to raise the economic life of the region and make quite a few preparations for the forthcoming campaign of the Persian. In 1722, Mr.. Volinskiy married a cousin of Peter the Great, Alexander Lvovna Naryshkina. Made this year a campaign in Persia ended unsuccessfully. Enemies Volyns'ke attributed this defeat to Peter if false information, delivered Volyn, and pointed the way to his bribery. King severely punished Volyns'ke his baton and no longer trusted him to continue. In 1723, Mr.. He was taken away "full can", provided only one administrative activities, and from participation in the war with Persia, he was completely eliminated. Catherine I appointed governor of Volyn in Kazan, and chief of the Kalmyk. In the last days of the reign of Catherine I Volyn, in the intrigues, mostly Yaguzhinskii, was dismissed from these posts. When Peter II, thanks to a rapprochement with Dolgoruky, Cherkassy and others, he again managed to get the post of governor in Kazan, where he stayed until the end of 1730, Mr.. His passion for the greed and unbridled temper in Kazan was at its peak, and caused the establishment of over it by the government "inquisition". Out from the office, he gets in November 1730, Mr.. new appointment in Persia, but soon determined, instead of Persia, the military inspector, under the command of Minich. Political views were expressed Volyns'ke for the first time in the "Note" prepared (1730) supporters of the autocracy, but corrected it by hand. He sympathized with the plans of the supreme, but was a zealous advocate for the nobility. Fawning before omnipotent then foreigners - Minich, . Levenvoldom and by Biron, . Volinskiy converges, . however, . and with their secret enemies, . Eropkin, . Khrushchov and Tatishchev, . conducts interviews on the political situation of the Russian state and builds a plan to correct internal state of affairs,
. In 1733, Mr.. Volinskiy was chief of the detachment army besieging Danzig, in 1736, Mr.. he was appointed chief Jagermeister, and in 1737, Mr.. sent second minister to the Congress in Nemirov for the negotiation of peace with Turkey. In 1738, Mr.. appointed cabinet minister. Through him Biron expected to have a bulwark against Osterman. Volinskiy quickly put in order the affairs of the Cabinet, . expanded its membership to more frequent convening of the "general assembly", . We invite Senators, . Presidents of colleges and other dignitaries, to accept the control panel cabinet military, . Admiralty and foreign,
. In 1739, Mr.. was the only speaker at the Empress for Cabinet Affairs. Soon, however, his main opponent Osterman could cause dissatisfaction against Volyns'ke Empress. Although he managed, . device mock wedding of Prince Golitsyn with Kalmyk Buzheninova, . the time to regain the position of Anna Ioannovna, . but brought to its attention, the case of the beating Trediakovsky and rumors about buntovskih speeches Volyns'ke finally decided his fate,
. Osterman and Biron submitted their reports to the Empress, and demanded the trial of Volhynia, the Empress did not agree to this. Then Biron, insulted the shame of his actions and beating Trediakovsky (originated in its "rest"), resorted to a last resort: "or should I be, or he" - he said Anna Ioanovna. In early April 1740, Mr.. Volhynia was forbidden to be at court, on April 12, due to the Empress of reported cases in 1737, Mr.. about 500 rubles of public money taken from the office of butler Konyushennaya Volyn, Vasily Kubantsev, "in Particular needs" of his master, followed by house arrest and three days later proceeded to the investigation commission, composed of seven persons. Originally Volinskiy behaved bravely, willing to show confidence that the whole affair will end happily, but then lost heart and confessed to bribery and concealment of money cauldrons. Particular attention has urged to denunciations Basil Kubans. Kubanets pointed to the speech of the Volyn "vain anger" Empress and the disadvantage of foreign governments, at all his intention to change and take the life of Biron, and Osterman. Interrogated, also denounced by Kubans, "confidant" Volyns'ke largely confirmed these statements. Important material for the prosecution then served papers and books Volyns'ke considered Ushakov and Neplyuev. Between his projects and reflections, . example, . "Citizenship", . "friendship human", . "harm befell on the person of the sovereign and society throughout the state", . were of major importance to "the general project on the improvement in governance, . painted them on their own accord, . another, . already with the knowledge of the sovereign, . draft of the amended public affairs,
. Board in Russia Empire, should be, according to the Volyn, monarchical, with wide participation of the nobility as a dominant class in the State. Another government department after the monarch should be the Senate, with the value of what he had under Peter the Great, followed by lower government representatives from the lower and middle nobility. Estates spiritual, urban and peasant received on the draft of Volyn, considerable privileges and rights. From all the required literacy, and from the clergy and nobility - a broad education, breeding grounds for which were to serve the Academy and the University. Many suggested measures for improvement of justice, finance, commerce and m. d. Upon further questioning Volyn (from April 18 - already in the secret office) called him perjurer, attributing his intention to make a revolution in the state. Under torture, Khrushchev, and Eropkin Soymonov expressly indicated a desire to occupy Russia itself Volyns'ke the throne after the death of Anna Ioannovna. But Volinskiy and under the blows of the whip in the dungeon rejected the accusation and tried his best to shield Elizabeth, in whose name, as if he wanted to revolutionize. Not admitted in Volinskiy treasonable intentions and after the second torture. Then, . by order of the Empress, . further the finding was terminated, . and June 19 is scheduled for trial Volhynia and his "confidant" general meeting, . which agreed to: 1) Volyn, . like a pioneer of all that evil deed, . living impaled, . carving his first language, 2) his confidant - quartered, . and then cut off their heads, and 3) to confiscate the estates and 4) Volynsky two daughters and son, banish in eternal link,
. June 23, this sentence was presented to the Empress, who commanded the head of Volyn, Yeropkina and Khrushchov cut, and other "confidant" of punishment to exile, which was done June 27, 1740, Mr.. Upon his return from exile, children Volyns'ke a monument at the grave of his father, who was buried together with Khrushchev and Eropkin near the gates of the church wall Sampson temple (on the Vyborg Side). In 1886, on the initiative of MI. Semevsky on donations from individuals, erected on the grave of a new monument. - See. Korsakov Artemy Volinskiy "(" Old and New Russia ", . 1876, . Book I, . and 1877, . Book I - II); his own article in the "Russian Antiquities" (1885, . N 10); Gorodetskiy "Monument to the common grave of Volyn, . Yeropkina and Khrushchov "(" Russian Antiquities ", . 1886, . N 6); Filippov "Artemy Volinskiy as cabinet minister" ( "Historical Journal", . 1901, . 5),
. V. Rudakov

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