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Wrangel, Ferdinand Petrovich

( admiral, Adjutant General)

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Biography Wrangel, Ferdinand Petrovich
photo Wrangel, Ferdinand Petrovich
member of the State Council, an honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, member of the Paris Academy of Sciences and many other learned societies. He was born in Pskov, 29 December 1796, Mr.. In 1807, after the death of parents, Wrangell was established in the Marine Cadet Corps. In 1815, Mr.. was promoted to midshipman. In 1817, Mr.. Wrangel was appointed to the sloop "Kamchatka", which, under the command of Captain Golovnina, went into a two-year voyage around the world. Commander "Kamchatka" failed to appreciate the outstanding qualities of the young Wrangel, on his return from a voyage Wrangel, on his recommendation, was appointed head of the expedition to study the northern coast of East Siberia. The northern coast of Siberia, and some of the surrounding islands, . from the XVII century, . repeatedly been osmatrivaemy Cossacks and industrialists, . and part describes naval officers and surveyors, but, . by imperfect tools and techniques of brave explorers XVII and XVIII centuries, . charts did not meet modern requirements of geography,
. Finally, . continued renewal of legends about the existence of habitable land in the north of New Siberia, and against the Kolyma River prompted the Government to send to the mouths of the Yana River and Kolyma "two naval officers with the Friends, . delivering them to all sorts of ways to the discovery of the alleged land in the Arctic Sea and accurate description of the coast of Siberia to the east of the Yana River ",
. Given the failure of previous attempts to produce an inventory of "icy sea on naval ship, the Admiralty department recognized the best way to travel expeditions - moving across the ice to the dogs in the spring. Chief Kolyma expedition was appointed Wrangell, and Jansky expedition - his comrade in the Corps P.F. Anjou. As assistant to his Wrangel took midshipman Matyushkina, navigator Kozmina and Dr. Kibera. In preparation for the expedition, Wrangel winter 1819/1820 has been engaged in Dorpat astronomy, physics and mineralogy. In May 1820, Mr.. Wrangell arrived in Irkutsk, where the governor-general MM. Speranski expedition had a very active patronage. Four years Wrangell held in the Far North, using the spring and summer travel on the ice and in the inventory of the coast, and spent the winter in the Lower Kolyma. Russian Description Wrangel published only in 1841, while already in 1839 appeared a German translation by EA. Engelhardt. From this German edition, printed on the initiative and with a foreword by renowned geographer K. Ritter, travel Wrangel translated into English wife of a British traveler E. Sabine and French Prince Golitsyn. English translation in 1842, Mr.. released the second edition. Regardless of the scientific value of this work, it is a work of art: paintings of nature, manners and customs of the population, industries and wealth of Siberia - all described with the observation, a simple and expressive language. In his essay "Nature and Man in the Far North, the famous writer Hartwig said:" The difficulties, . which had to fight to Wrangel, . zeal to achieve scientific results, . made them hardship and danger, . fearlessness and strength of will - all, . undoubtedly, . gives the right to Wrangel, . with Franklin and Parry, . be in the front row iceman ",
. The principal results of four years of travels and studies were as follows: 1) describes the coast from the mouth of the Kolyma River to the island Kolyuchin Island, 2) made numerous observations and collected information about the wonderful people and works almost unknown region of Siberia, and 3) examined the sea at a distance of 260 miles of Bank, . Wrangel satisfied with, . "in udobodostigaemom distance from the coast of Asia does not land on the Arctic Sea,
. If there is land in the north, then to open it should be done after the trip bezburnoy, frosty winters, from Cape Yakana where, according to the testimony of residents, most unknown country is moving closer to the coast of the Asian continent ". In 1867 an American whaler Long really opened the ground near the place, . scheduled Wrangel on the map, . which got the name of the land Wrangel; 4) In their repeated attempts to penetrate the ice to the North, . Expedition Wrangel and Anjou everywhere met an insurmountable obstacle in the form of an open water space,
. The existence of this so-called "big hole in the ice, first proved by these travelers, served, among other things, Nordenshildu reason for his bold enterprise. After 4 years the expedition was instructed to return to Irkutsk. Wrangel had sought permission to stay for another year or two to even try your luck and reach the Cape Yakana land, the existence of which he had no doubt, but he was denied. In fervale 1824. Wrangel arrived in Irkutsk in July 1824 returned to St. Petersburg. Emperor Alexander I took Wrangel very favorably by awarding him the Order of Vladimir Grade 4. In the autumn of 1824. Wrangel was appointed commander of the military transport "mild", designed to circumnavigate the world is brought to supplies to Kamchatka. In August 1825, Mr.. "Mild" was released in the sea and, having fulfilled the task, he returned in September 1827, Mr.. Description of this trip Wrangell presented in maritime ministry, but it was not published, but the manuscript was lost, has survived in the archives only shhanechny magazine, from which in 1882, Mr.. extracted and printed in meteorological and other observations, among other things, water temperature, which in our fleet was observed for the first time at the "lowly" correctly 4 times a day. On his return from a voyage Wrangel was appointed commander of the frigate "Elizabeth". In autumn 1828 the frigate arrived in Kronstadt. At the end of winter 1828, Mr.. he was invited by the directors of North American companies to take the post of chief administrator of the colonies. He accepted the offer, he sulivshee independent range of activities. In March 1829. Wrangel was promoted to Captain 1 rank with the appointment of the governor of the North American colonies. In November 1830. Wrangel and his family arrived in Sitka, where he spent 5 years, each year going around the colony. Getting acquainted with the needs on the ground edge, . Wrangel organized a correct operation of industries, . preserving at the same time the native population from abuse convivial agents, in their humanitarian endeavors Wrangel met strong support in the missionary work of Benjamin, a priest, . subsequently Reverend Innocent, . Metropolitan of Moscow,
. In 1835, Wrangell departed Sitka, visit the company owned by Ross Colony (near the Gulf of Bodego, California), Mexico, crossed from the port of San Blas to Verakrutsa, from Havre, arrived in Kronstadt in the summer of 1836, Mr.. Visit to Mexico was intended to achieve, by the republic, the assignment fertile valley, stretching for 20 miles from the colony of Ross. Mexican authorities agreed to various concessions, if Russia will enter into formal relations with the Government of the Republic. Reporting later this Emperor Nicholas, . Wrangell pointed to the example of Prussia, . which, . not officially recognizing the Republic, . concluded, . however, . through its Consul General lucrative trade treatise, . but the Emperor interrupted him with the words: "For the benefit of Prussia in front of honor, . and I have the opposite ",
. Because of this decision, a colony of Ross, brings nothing but losses, was abolished. The area occupied by the former colony, and still remains barren. Gold-bearing sand were discovered subsequently in the ground, lying beyond the mountain ridge separating the coastal strip, where the settlement was located, from the valley stretching into the country (see. "Historical Review of Education Russo-American colonies" P. Tihmeneva). July 8, 1836, Mr.. Wrangel was promoted to rear admiral, in August, was appointed director of the Department of Forests ship. In 1838, Mr.. Wrangell, remaining director of the department, was elected as Russia's head of North American companies the colonies, and in 1840 the general director of what remained until 1849. Activities Wrangel led the company makes a brilliant era of this company. In behalf of his management of the department of Wrangell with his characteristic energy set about combating abuse rooted and routine, and was initially supported in its quest for maritime Minister Prince A.S. Menshikov, which lasted, however, did not last long, and because Wrangel retired and settled in his estate Ruyl, the province of Estonia. In 1854, Wrangell appointed director of the hydrographic department, then chairman of the committee to revise the maritime criminal laws, and in 1855, Mr.. - Chairman of the Scientific Committee and the Inspector navigators. Depot cards, a library, printing house had been listed in order. Sea Collection "took a new direction, resulting in progressive magazine has a great significance in our literature. May 18, 1855, Mr.. Wrangel was appointed manager of the Naval Ministry, at the same time a member of the Siberian Committee, in August the same year - a member of the Committee for consideration of funds to protect the shores of the Baltic Sea. In 1856, Mr.. Wrangel was appointed adjutant-general and promoted to admiral. Enthusiastically Wrangel surrendered seething activity, excited in the Naval Department, General-Admiral His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich. Mention of the new institutions and changes in the administration, . initiative which belongs to Wrangel, . namely: 1) the formation of the technical committee, and 2) the appointment of naval officers, heads of policemen in the ports on the Black and Azov Seas, and 3) the transformation of the Admiralty Board in the kind, . in which it is now, . and 4) a statement, . special note, . the need for and benefits to develop the Black and Caspian seas, a merchant fleet of transport ships strong, . Why must form a privileged joint-stock company, . to benefit from the treasury,
. Difficulties, if it is strong and direct nature, collisions and excessive strain broke down, however, the forces of Wrangel: April 1857. he went for treatment abroad. In June Wrangel was dismissed from the post of managing marine ministry and appointed a member of the Council of State. At this time, all branches of government were undertaken significant changes: the liberation of the peasants, judicial reform, the abolition of licenses, the introduction of the unity fund, state control and many others. Having no oratorical talent, Wrangel their views on the issues discussed were mainly expounded in his memoirs and notes, which lent elected fellow members, and some of his notes gave rise to a change in predetermined events. Renewed in 1864. Wrangel old ailment forced to leave office classes. After 2 years in foreign lands, he finally settled on his estate, but in a rustic retreat took an active part in the evil day, and shared his views, based on extensive experience, in correspondence with his friends. He died while in transit in Dorpat, May 25, 1870. of a heart attack at 84 year of age. The chief of his works are: "Essay on the path of the Sith in St. Petersburg" (1836), "Historical review travels in the Arctic Ocean" (1836), "Journey to the northern shores of Siberia and the Arctic Sea" (1841). Very interesting information on the northwest coast of America, reported Wrangel, appeared in German translation, and I make that "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reiches", edition of Baer and Helmersen. As seen from the preface of publishers, notes Wrangell served as the first occasion to the base of the academic publication. Biographical sketch of him appeared in the "Russian Antiquities", t. V, 1872: "Baron Ferdinand Petrovich Wrangel" KI. Schwartz. In German: "Ferdinand von Wrangel und seine Reise langs der Nordkuste von Sibirien und auf dem Eismeere" (von L. v. Engelhardt, Leipzig, 1885). F.F. Wrangel.

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