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Vyshnegradsky Ivan

( scientist and statesman)

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Biography Vyshnegradsky Ivan
photo Vyshnegradsky Ivan
(1830 - 1895). He graduated from the course in the Tver theological seminary, then in the main pedagogical institute. He taught mathematics at the military academies, and after defending a thesis: "On the motion of material points, determined by the total differential equations", received a Master of Mathematical Sciences. Learn the techniques of artillery affairs, became a professor of mechanics at the Artillery Academy and was appointed a member of the interim committee of artillery, entered the study of the theory of strength of materials and developed a course winders. At the same time it was compiled textbook elementary mechanics, the first we have experience of a strictly scientific statement of the grounds mechanics using only elementary mathematics. During a trip abroad, he consulted with the production of practical mechanics in Germany, Belgium, France and England, and specifically studied in Karlsruhe construction machinery. Upon his return received the chair of mechanics in the Institute of Technology. Works Vyshnegradsky mechanics translated mostly into foreign languages is especially known was his work: "The mechanical theory of heat", the conclusions of which have caught the attention of the Paris Academy of Sciences ( "Comptes Rendus", 1876). He worked on equipment Okhtenskoye gunpowder factory and machine shop in St. Petersburg unit arsenal, participated in the work of the Commission on the issue of rearmament, in the device manufacturing All-Russia Exhibition 1870. and the Russian machine department of the Vienna World Exhibition. From 1875 to 1878. was director of St. Petersburg. Institute of Technology. As a member of the Board of the St. Petersburg community water supply and some railway companies (South-Western Railways, Rybinsk-Bologovskij railroad, etc.). As chairman of these companies participated in the writings of the so-called "Baranovskaya commission" for the Exploration of the railways in Russia. After the work on the revision of the statute of real schools and on the device of the All-Russia industrial and art exhibition 1882, Mr.. in Moscow, Vyshnegradsky was appointed in 1884. board member of the Minister of Education, drafted a normal industrial education and participated in the development of the university statute 1884. In 1886. appointed member of the State Council on the Department of State Economy, in 1887, Mr.. - Manager of the Ministry of Finance, instead of N.H. Bunge, and the following year confirmed as Minister of Finance. In 1892, Mr.. Vyshnegradsky was fired, according to the petition, sickness, from office. Office Vyshnegradsky Ministry of Finance has coincided with economic growth of the country, and it has identified all of its financial policy. If Bunge capitalist economy Russia only adapt themselves to new post-reform conditions of public life, . and the minister himself was still under some influence of progressive during the 60-bit and 70-ies, . from the middle 80-ies started the era of capitalist frenzy, . and Vyshnegradsky was a typical expression of the new requirements rooted in Russia capitalist economy,
. Russia more and more occupied a place among the other major capitalist countries; correspondingly increased militarism, and with it, and the state budget. Bunge could not cope with deficits, the destruction of a key objective for the new minister. Economic conditions in the beginning of his administration that favored. First steps Vyshnegradsky headed in the footsteps of his predecessor - upward of customs revenue. Already in 1887, Mr.. for the destruction of the difficulties of note murals 1888. were increased duties on iron (up to 25 cents), increased the incidence of iron, steel, iron, iron and steel products, machinery, locomotives, ships and ore. Lined duty Plants, . lively and dry, raised duties on cotton (from 45 kopeks to 1 ruble), . paper and cotton yarn, . agricultural machinery and implements, . Spices, . drugs, . gold, . silver and platinum products, . Carpentry, . turnery, . lace, . buttons, . bugles and especially on coal,
. Protection of Russian industry was caused by the increase in duties on hops and hops extract, ammonia and ammonium salts, sewing and knitting yarn and brick tea. Mainly to increase the revenue of customs duties and went on increasing in future years. In 1889, Mr.. were raised duties on wool, wood pulp, cars, mineral wax, starch: in 1891, Mr.. - On cotton yarn. Under the influence of the strong appreciation of the ruble loan (up to 4 / 5 the value of the metal.) In 1890. was considered necessary to raise all the old tariff rates by 20%. Taxes on coal and coke were increased by 4%. Climax protectionist policies in connection with fiskalizmom reached in the Customs Tariff 1891. By this tariff were given new duties on sulfur and pyrites, . clay, . stones, and raised the old: on raw silk, . jute, . cream of tartar; strengthened customs taxation of foreign raw, . imported in the form of semi-processed (spun silk, . combed wool, . Paper wool, . raw mirrored glass, . thin sheet iron, etc.),
. For 35% import was on a tariff to 2% lowered and rounded to 63% increased fees (Sobolev, 698). The new conditions of economic life and the need to streamline public finances urgently demanded the settlement of monetary and Public Credit. For the introduction, instead of paper, metal currency the government had to accumulate in his hands sufficient gold reserves, metal small coin fund. Already in 1887, Mr.. Vyshnegradsky filed a note on measures to consolidate and streamline the rate of exchange of currency. Achieving these goals, he thought it possible the following conditions: 1) admission free exchange of banknotes into coin, which was necessary to gain a bargaining fund, and 2) permit the conclusion of transactions on a metallic currency. Views Vyshnegradsky met a number of objections to the Commission of the State Council, chaired by Turner. Meanwhile, non-metallic currency transactions, with an absolute decrease in the number of credit cards and lack of elasticity of paper-money system, causing many difficulties in the commercial and industrial traffic. Vintage 1888. increased export of grain, thanks to strong demand for credit cards, and as their numbers at the box office of the state bank decreases, the same year it was produced 2 issues credit cards for 30 million rubles. In 1891, Mr.. needed to make 3 more production to 75 million rubles. Due to disagreement with the views of the State Council Vyshnegradsky of approval of transactions on a metallic currency, the focus Vyshnegradsky was drawn to the increase in gold reserves. Ministry sought to take advantage of a significant supply of foreign bills of exchange, as a consequence of excess of exports, and has sought to buy them, and then forwards its foreign correspondents, in return for their gold. The manufactured issues of banknotes backed by gold, but this did not guarantee their value, as the general fund of the metal was less than 1 / 4 of the total amount of money circulation. Under such conditions, metal-treatment could not be restored, and the rate of exchange fluctuated. In 1888. course credit ruble has fallen lower than ever before - on 50,1% below parity, then, rising, reached in 1889, Mr.. to 65.9 cents in gold and in 1890. - Up to 75 cents in gold. Such fluctuations were unprofitable major exporter - the class of landowners. According Vyshnegradsky could reach that "leave our grain will be quite impossible" (cm. Jubilee edition of the Ministry of Finance, 1902, p.. 106). Under such conditions Vyshnegradsky thought it necessary to whatever it costs to keep the ruble exchange rate at a certain extreme level - 1 ruble 60 kopeks credit for 1 gold rubles, or 62.5 cents in gold for 1 credit ruble. To fix this course, it was decided, except for the acquisition of foreign bills of exchange, increasing all fees by 20% and the issuance of credit cards, buy a certain number of credit cards. The Ministry took over speculation and this further promotes the development of hype, speculation and unbridled rule of the exchange, which characterizes the entire age management Vyshnegradsky. Government has managed to accumulate a considerable fund of metal (from 1 January 1887, Mr.. August 30, 1892. purchased gold worth over 309 million rubles), but despite all the measures taken, the course still showed considerable variations: in 1890. - 72,6, in 1891, Mr.. - 66,8, in 1892. - 63,1 kopecks. The same class interests of large landowners, who did not allow the implementation of the increasing value of the ruble exchange rate to parity, and other measures dictated the Minister of Finance. For the development of the welfare of the peasants was not carried out any measures, but the landowners make all sorts of benefits. Activities of Peasant Bank was extended to the Vistula Province (1888); sale of mortgaged peasant land by auction was facilitated; take all possible steps to a working contribution payments, the following bank. At the same time, the society of mutual LAND loan, . which were, . mainly, . incorporated private estates, . was allowed conversion of 5%-governmental mortgage-sheet in 41 / 2% metal-WIDE, . with government guarantee, the bank allowed the nobility Issue 5%-governmental mortgage-sheet at 80 million rubles, . and this opportunity to lend cash,
. In 1889, Mr.. nobility noble borrowers of the Bank were downgraded sizes platimyh of interest on loans up to 41 / 2% in 1890. Society of Mutual LAND loan was transferred to the Office of the Public noble land bank. The same character was and tax policy Vyshnegradsky. Direct taxes were, for the insignificant exceptions, without any change. Was introduced an additional fold-out fee from merchants and businesses negildeyskih (1889); increased surcharge to joint stock companies and partnerships on shares (1887). In 1887, Mr.. taxed shares of railway companies, guaranteed rate of 5% and non-guaranteed rate of 3%. And if the revenue from direct taxes in the management Vyshnegradsky gave an increase, it is not because of the introduction of new taxes or a more appropriate distribution. The system of direct taxation has remained intact in all its technical and economic backwardness, but the economic life developed, and income from direct taxation of mechanically increased. With all his force a new tax reform minister hit the broad masses of the population. The need to increase government revenue and improve public finances and at the same time striving for the patronage of commercial and industrial class dictated Vyshnegradsky increased indirect taxation. Potatory excise tax was increased in 1887, Mr.. from 9 to 91 / 4 penny to a degree; patent fee in some provinces increased, a smoke, which went in favor of owners, limited. In the same year introduced a new tariff packages of tobacco products, with an increase of 20 - 50%. In 1888. introduced two new excise tax - oil (40 cents a peck on all light oil and 30 kopecks per pood in the lungs) and the match, with the expatriation of both excise tax were to be be composed. Imposed additional excise duty (40 cents a peck) with refined sugar and a special extra fee for the right of refined sugar (1890 - 1891). Simple stamp duty from 60 to 80 cents, the assembly price of paper increased by 25%. Stamp duty on interest securities increased (1888); effect of the stamp statute extended to commodity stacked certificate (1889). Legal fees have the character of the stamp duty: more than 25 rubles, they were paid in cash, up to 25 rubles - the special tax stamps (1890). In the same year passed a law concerning the levying of duties on inheritance, opening after foreign nationals; set fee to the Revenue from the so-called special current accounts; collection of passports doubled. Effects of residue with increasing content of persons who are in public service, extended to a new contingent of employees. In 1891, Mr.. Assay fee raised from gold production from 15 cents to 30 cents in silver from 1 penny to 2 cents. Given the strong price increases on alcohol breeders spirtoochistitelnyh plants in 1887 - 1888 years was projected introduction of treasury sales pitey in the Perm province in Western Siberia. This was done only in the province of Perm, in Siberian breeders have lowered prices, and the introduction of treasury sales pitey deferred. Since 1889, Mr.. Minister of Finance was allowed to open the breech sale pitey without permits sentences of rural societies. Along with the increase in indirect taxation in a variety of its forms, were all sorts of benefits the factory owners. As incentives for the sugar in 1889. found three terms for levying excise. Generally beet-sugar industry took a privileged position, breeders began to receive an incentive award for the export of sugar abroad. The same promotion occurred in relation to the distillery breeders, all the factories were given bezaktsiznoe deduction of 2% vykurki for the first million degrees, . 1% - for 1 - 3 million, . 1 / 2% for 3 - 12 million, then given an additional deduction of 4% over the first 1 / 2 million,
. In close connection with the protection of commercial and industrial class and with the desire to increase exports, as a means to improve public finances by creating a favorable balance of trade, and railway policy is Vyshnegradsky. It can be reduced to three main groups of activities: the streamlining of tariffs and use them to promote the export and import difficulties, . the development of control over the railway companies and to alleviate the burden lay on the Treasury's coffers by buying in a number of private railways,
. Valid government oversight and rukovoditelstvo rail fares starting from 1889, when they were issued temporary regulations on railway fares and institutions under the tariff for. In the same year was made lowering grain tariffs; grain exported abroad, was set 10% discount, in 1890. revised import tariffs. Tariffs for transportation of coal transported from the ports in the country increased at the Donetsk coal, Polish and Ural significantly lowered by lowered the tariffs for transportation of oil, kerosene and cattle. Strong diversity of tariffs and their complexity makes it extremely difficult to move goods, particularly if the goods had to pass on some roads in the hands of different rail companies. Ministry of Finance took over simplification of tariffs and make them more uniformity. Enhanced rail company promotion and the dependence of trade and industry from railroads created the unusual operation of the railway companies. Consignors of goods difficult to understand the complex and diverse tariffs and from the constant strumming suffered large losses. Railway Companies in view of this it was recommended that the Finance Minister not to impose preferential tariffs without the permission of the Ministry, established a preliminary presentation of the new tariffs in the ministry and the publication of tariffs for general information. By eliminating the exploitation of the railway gryunderov by streamlining tariffs, the Ministry of Finance, at the same time, further promotes the same company promotion by other parties of its rail policy. A huge debt of railway companies, . mostly guaranteed by the Government, . becoming a serious burden on the treasury and burdened the state budget, at least so was put ransom private roads treasury, . but in carrying it to the interests of the state once mingled with the private interests of the capitalists,
. The owners of railway stocks and bonds, all kinds of speculators were among the influential persons in government, and the ransom is not so much committed to the state, how much benefit the owners of roads and shareholders. Treasury debt to society generally composed, and the forfeiture disadvantageous and unprofitable roads delivered from inevitable collapse of society. All had been redeemed by the Government with Vyshnegradsky up to 4760 branches of Railways (Ryazhsk-Morshansk, Transcaucasian, Morshansk-Syzranskaya, Tambov, Kozlovsky, Kursk-Kharkov-Azov, Libau-Romenskaya, etc.). And at the same time, the government allows new concessions: in 1887 - 1891 years were allowed to construct a penalty only a few small roads and branches (total 460 branches), and private companies during the same period was permitted construction of about 1,830 branches. Railway company promotion of speculation and a lot of help and permission to issue new 4%-governmental bonds a variety of Railways (Kursk-Azov, Kozlova, Voronezh, Rostov, Orel, Bryansk, Fastovsky, etc.). In the field of public credit Vyshnegradsky got a heavy legacy: a great variety of forms of government loans, prisoners, moreover, an extremely high price - 6 - 8%. Reducing the cost of public debt was due to begin his unification and consolidation. In 1887, Mr.. was released on the outer 4% loan-tion of 100 million rubles repayable annual circulation of over 80 years. Subscription offer price 84% gave 83 million rubles. Due to the further need for funds for railway construction in 1891. was awarded a new 3% Gold Loan. Russian state credit was then very low. Despite all the efforts of the syndicate of Russian and foreign bankers and the Russian government, the subscription was tight, and the placement of the loan it took almost two years. Instead of declaring the amount of 125 million rubles, a subscription has given no more than 95 million gold rubles. In 1890, Mr.. the first graduates of the internal 41 / 2% Consolidated. Railway loan of 75 million rubles credit. narits. In 1887, Mr.. tickets issued by the State Treasury to the payment of 379/100 instead of 432/100%%, this reduced the amount of tickets the state treasury for 18 million rubles. In the same year was carried peresrochka banknotes 1 release and the release of 1863. This gave the treasury savings of 8 million rubles, but shifted the burden of public debt on future generations. To reduce government spending was necessary to reduce the payment by government credit. Vyshnegradsky chose the path of conversion operations. In 1888. conversion was carried out so-called military loan 1877. By means of a syndicate of Paris bankers was released 4% loan-tion of 125 million rubles for the exchange of 5%-tion of bonds of this loan. In 1890, Mr.. was released on 2 and 4%-tion of gold loan of 90 million rubles to buy Anglo-Dutch 5%-governmental loans in 1864 and 1866 years and of 5% of the loan in 1855, in the same year, took third issue 4% aqueous gold loan of 75 million rubles in gold for the redemption of 5% loan 1862,
. Finally, the fourth conversion can be considered as Issue in 1890. 4% gold loan-tion 4-th issue of 10 million rubles for the redemption of 5%-governmental bonds Kharkov, Kremenchug railroad. In 1891, Mr.. through the free flow of the Treasury of gold were bought 1 Dutch loan, 41 / 2% metal-WIDE. Loans 1850 and 1860 at 29.5 million rubles in gold. Along with the conversion of government loans, were made the conversion of railway loans. In 1889, Mr.. held: Issue 4%-governmental consolidated. Bonds 2 nd release, and release of 4%-governmental Consolidated. Bonds 2 nd series at 310.4 million rubles for the conversion of the remaining 5% of the consoli-tion. bonds (1, 3, 4 and 7 issues). When the conversion was completed most onerous external 5%-governmental loans, Vyshnegradsky began in 1891, Mr.. to the conversion of internal loans. For this purpose, first of all has been committed ransom 51 / 2%-governmental certificates of redemption through the issuance of the 2 nd 4% aqueous internal loan of 70 million rubles, then redeemed banknotes 3, . 4 and 5 issue of 184 million rubles through the issuance of the 3rd 4% aqueous internal loan for 104 million rubles, . and, . Finally, . convertible bonds of the 1 st loan east 1877,
. by release of 4-th 4% aqueous internal loan for 190 million rubles. Lending operations Vyshnegradsky distinguished by a large scale, if not all conversions are successful, then this is due to the vastness, complexity and novelty of the case for Russia. Payments on public debt has been reduced, the percentage is lowered, a variety of forms of public debt significantly reduced. But like everything else in the management Vyshnegradsky, part of its credit operations was related to the protection of the interests of the ruling aristocratic landowning class. These were: conversion mortgage bond mutual society LAND loan, . with lists of new mortgages were exempt from paying a coupon tax, then the 3rd winning loan in 1889, . dissemination to the wider public sector government to help by offering loans to buyers on low%,
. The same loan caused not only the usual stock boom, but some feverish pursuit of profit, in the broadest segments of the public (Wed. Migulin "The Russian government loan", II, 443 - 444). The same feverish drive for profit was all financial and tax policies Vyshnegradsky. She served two purposes - an absolutist state, needs a solid finances and an increase in the budget for the army and navy, and developing capitalism. The masses were not taken into account, none of the Russian ministers did not bring so readily interests of the lower classes in the sacrifice of absolutism and capitalism. And the results of this policy were soon apparent. Public debt, though orderly, reached the end of the 1892. 5.8741 billion rubles. Increased protection has not led to a goal: it did not diminish the import of a number of products, but also made broad masses of the population even more to overpay for the necessary articles of consumption. Customs revenue has increased from 98.3 million rubles in 1887, Mr.. to 122.6 million rubles in 1891. and took a seat in the state budget, along with revenue from indirect taxation. The increase in indirect taxation has increased tax burden and bringing the payment forces the population to extreme tension. When in 1891 and 1892 came the crop failures, shortfalls in revenue from the peasants and a number of other facts in the economic life of Russia have discovered the fragility of growth in government revenues. - See. "The Ministry of Finance 1802 - 1902 years" (Commemorative Edition, St. Petersburg., 1902, h. II); M. Sobolev "The customs policy of Russia in the second half of XIX century." (Tomsk, 1911); In. Vitchevsky "Trade, Customs and industrial policy R." (St. Petersburg, 1909); S.YU. Witte, "Abstract of lectures" (St. Petersburg, 1912); M. Kashkarov "The principal results of the public money economy for 1885 - 1894 Year" (St. Petersburg, 1895); P. Migulin "The Russian government loan", II (Kharkov, 1899); P. Shvanebah "Monetary conversion and the national economy" (St. Petersburg, 1901). S. Zagorski.

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