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Gapon Georgy

( leader of the revolutionary period 1904 - 05 years)

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Biography Gapon Georgy
Born about 1870, came from Little Russia Cossacks at the end of the Poltava seminary for some time Zemsky served as a statistician in the province of Poltava, and then there was the same priest. Joined the St. Petersburg Theological Academy, from which he graduated in 1903. During my stay in the Theological Academy, started his dual service: on the one hand, the revolutionary labor movement, on the other hand - security office and the Police Department. He made friends with the head of the Moscow Police Department Zubatovs, . with Rachkovsky and other officials of the Police Department and through these connections could relatively freely to participate in the life of the working class of St. Petersburg, . as its organizer and agitator,
. In 1903, Mr.. he had received a priest in the St. Petersburg transit prison and, with the permission of the administration, founded the Society of Russian factory workers and factory workers, held in St. Petersburg from 11 departments, where there are thousands of members. These departments met to discuss their affairs, had cash, their organization was the intermediary between the workers and the employers, as well as the City of St. Petersburg, who believed Gapon his own man. Gapon early managed to acquire huge popularity among the workers. He then promoted the idea, . that the monarchy does not contradict the requirements of the working class, he argued, . that workers must be organized manner to demand improvement of their situation - wage increases, . reduce working hours, . sanitation, . hygiene and other conditions of work and t,
. etc., but not interfere in politics. Thus, his campaign had the character of conservative-democratic or, perhaps, the rabble-rouser, but with the end of 1904,. its meaning is changing, and it is clearly a revolutionary. In early January 1905. dismissal of several workers Putilov Gapon society gave rise to present to the administration of the plant requirement for them to reverse the adoption, when this demand was not honored, . started a huge strike, . sweeping up to 150 000 workers of St. Petersburg,
. On Sunday, January 9, 1905, Mr.. Gapon organized a grand procession of workers from the premises of St. Petersburg department of his society in various parts of the city to the Winter Palace to petition the Emperor. The petition was drawn up with his participation and contained a variety of far-reaching economic and political demands: an eight-hour day, freedom of speech, strikes and t. d. Crowds of workers and their wives and children, carrying in front of the king's portraits and banners taken from the church, praying, singing "Save me, O Lord, Thy people, marched to the Winter Palace, but were met with gunfire, and a significant number were wounded and killed. Gapon managed to escape, he turned to the working class with a letter rather revolutionary content, which was distributed illegally and fled abroad. There he made friends with the revolutionaries of various parties tried to mediate between them, but was completely unable to understand their programs and tactical questions that historical moment. Autumn 1905. he secretly returned to St. Petersburg, . had intercourse with Count Witte, . who was then chairman of the Council of Ministers, . received money from the government for damages, . incurred by society due to its closure, . was again close relations with the Police Department,
. March 28, 1906, Mr.. He was killed by a socialist-revolutionary Rutenberg on an empty cottage in Ozerki. Personality Gapon still can not be fully ascertained. Who was he wanted to serve, the working class or the police, and one of them he wanted to bring - to this question are given different answers. Anyway, . He played a very important role in the awakening of the working class, . but at the same time, his ambiguous actions contribute to a system in a working environment elements of the inner expansion, . Planting spying, . provocation, . mistrust,
. Abroad, was published in English of his autobiography - "The story of my life, by Father Gapon" (Leningrad, 1906), which represents the translation is not the manuscript, and made under his dictation to his words. - See. V. Korolenko, the 9 th of January in St. Petersburg "(" Russian Wealth ", 1905, N 1; generally sympathetic Gapon); L. Gurevich, "Popular Movement in St. Petersburg on Jan. 9, 1905" ( "Past", 1906, N 1), and. Pavlov, . "From the memories of the working alliance and the priest Gapon" ( "last years", . 1908, . N 3 - 4; very difficult score Gapon, . with the author on the basis of familiarity with him denied, . to Gapon was an agent provocateur, . and recognizes his servant working case, . Although sympathetic resorted to various methods); Simbirsky, . "The Truth about Gapon and on January 9" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1906); Felix, . "Gapon and its socio-political role" (1906, . extremely hostile Gapon) G,
. Petrov, "The Truth about Gapon; P. Rutenberg, "It Gapon" (in the foreign "Past", St. Petersburg, 1909, N 11); Polonskij, "Priester Georgij G." (Halle, 1905); R. v. Ungern-Steruberg, "Die Erziehung der St.-Petersburger Arbeitschaft zur Revolution" (Berlin, 1909).

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