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HESSE, Joseph V.

( Well-known social activist and lawyer)

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Biography HESSE, Joseph V.
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Iosif Vladimirovich Gessen was born April 14, 1865, Mr.. (according to other sources - in 1866) in Odessa, a wealthy Jewish family. Santa I.V. Hesse for his father was a merchant, known for his public and commercial and industrial activities. His father and brothers, father and husbands of his sisters, were engaged in the grain trade.

In 1874, at age 9, he enrolled in the 2-S Odessa High School. Already trained in high school, he joined the revolutionary activities.

Since 1883. Hesse studied at Faculty of Law at the Novorossiysk University in Odessa, from which was expelled in 1885. for participating in student riots, which he himself has always denied. Continued his studies at St. Petersburg University, he established contacts with revolutionary terrorist organization People's Will. He was exiled for three years in the Vologda Province, after he was arrested during a raid. Here in 1887, Mr.. was born, his eldest son, Sergei, who later became well-known philosopher, educator, literary critic and public figure of Russian emigration.

Since 1889, Mr.. Hesse lived in Odessa, where an external law degree from St. Petersburg University. By the time he walked away from the revolutionary activity. Despite the application management department, Hesse was not left in the teaching profession because of "politically unreliable" and the Jewish faith.

In 1894, Mr.. Hesse received orthodoxy, to adopt a son, Sergei, caught in his care. Soon, he married Anna Isakovna Blumenfeld, niece of a famous surgeon in Bessarabia.

The adoption of the Orthodox Church has opened the way for Hesse to public service: he went to work in the Tula district court. In 1896, Mr.. for success on the judicial department, he was invited to the post of Assistant Legal Adviser in the Ministry of Justice and his family moved to St. Petersburg.

Since 1898. Hesse worked in the journal "Education" and the newspaper "Russian Gazette" and "Son of the Fatherland". He organized a weekly legal newspaper issue "Right", the first issue of which came out on Nov. 8, 1898, Mr.. This edition of Hesse edited throughout its existence. Subsequently, becoming a member of the Constitutional Democratic Party, Hesse has turned the "right" in prokadetskoe edition.

In 1901, Mr.. Gessen's son was born in Vladimir, later included in the composition of the Constitutional Democratic Party and released in 1974. memories in the struggle for life (Notes emigrant), highlighting the details of the life of his father in St. Petersburg and Berlin, his character traits, relationships with colleagues in journalism and his fellow party.

Since the early 1900-ies. Hesse became friendly with the Liberals, participated in the preparation of publications Zemsky circle "Conversation". Later he became manager of the publishing house of the circle. He was one of the organizers and a board member of the Union of Liberation ".

Simultaneously Hesse was engaged in scientific activities. They have published numerous works, covering various issues of law: "Legal literature for the people" (1902), "Judicial Reform" (1904), "Reform of the Local Court" (1910), "History of Russian Bar" (1914 - 1916) and other.

Since 1904. Hesse served as a barrister.

In 1905, Mr.. he participated in the establishment of the Constitutional Democratic Party, which became the vice-chairman of the St. Petersburg Committee. In 1906, Mr.. Hesse became a member of the Central Committee of the. It is to this period in his life relates the following recollection of the AV. Tyrkova-Williams: "Hesse was a Jew, a lawyer with a good practice, an intelligent, lively, talented, friendly". Elsewhere in his memoirs, she describes as a man of Hesse "practical", but "sentimental".

In 1905, Mr.. with P.N. Milyukovs Hesse edited the newspaper "People's Freedom", has worked in the journal "Bulletin of the Party of People's Freedom". Since February 1906. He was co-editor (with P.N. Milyukovs) newspaper "Rech, the organ of the Constitutional Democratic Party.

In October 1905. Hesse participated in secret negotiations between the Central Committee of the Constitutional Democratic Party and S.YU. Witte establishing constitutional Cabinet. In his memoirs, described the minister of Hesse as "a man of great talent of the pen and the word" but "naive policy".

During the election campaign in the I Duma Hesse was excluded from the list of voters in connection with bringing to trial for "anti-government activities".

During the elections in the State Duma II of Hesse advocated an agreement with the Octobrists and had contact with P.A. Stolypin. In 1907, Mr.. He was elected to the II State Duma from St. Petersburg. It consists of Hesse served as deputy chairman of the faction of the Cadets, led the commission on the reform of the local court, commission on personal integrity, participated in the commission upon request and the library commission. It was at Giessen Miliukov tried to lay leadership Cadet fraction II in the Duma, where the leader of the Constitutional Democrats needed a man who can hold his line. But the result, as argued by contemporaries, turned lamentable. The head of an influential political faction soon felt "a general disappointment in political activity, due to familiarization with its scenes. According to the memoirs of Hesse, from his friends he had to constantly listen to accusations of naivete, "a misunderstanding of chess moves <:> his fellow party members and the inability to reflect their".

In 1909, Mr.. Hesse took part in the criticism of the collection "Milestones", among the authors of which were prominent representatives of pravokadetskogo directions. Thus, he publicly distanced himself from the emergent ideology of this movement. It is indicative of those explanations, which many years later gave Hesse about the release of "Rex" and its response to this collection. He interpreted the appearance of "Rex" as "an unexpected support <:> spirit of pessimism," gripping Russia Society. According to him, "de facto" "Milestones" had "substantial support" to the Government and the "remarkable was that Struve received greetings from the ardent reactionary Archbishop Anthony, to whom he answered filial gratitude". However, Hesse recalls that after the book he "felt" that the "Milestones" outline the slogans of the future "and" enjoy the protection of science ". But he "could not with such heretical ideas openly," and he "nevertheless it was impossible to resist attacks on" Milestones ".

During World War I Hesse worked as editor of the newspaper "Rech.

After the February Revolution of Hesse participated in the organization of the Union of Russian Writers' Union led the editors of daily newspapers. In September, 1917. He became a member of the Interim Council of the Republic of Russia (Pre-Parliament).

After the October Revolution Hesse opposed the Bolsheviks seized power. He was a political center at the headquarters of General NN. Yudenich, and in January 1919. (other sources - in 1920) emigrated to Finland. Settling in Helsingfors, he spoke in the Scandinavian press organs with a series of violent articles against the Bolsheviks, has been collaborating with "Vossische zeitung", one of the biggest newspapers in Germany. We know his "Open Letter to the Social Democrats", printed in this edition. In this letter, Hesse, by his own admission, "developed in detail his cherished idea of" persuading the European Social Democrats isolate themselves from the Bolsheviks. He argued that Russia faces the danger of a terrible reaction that "overflow beyond the Russian state," and that "the reaction of the more painful blow to the Socialists, the more they will connect themselves with the fate of the Bolshevik regime".

Soon Hesse moved from Finland to Germany.

June 1, 1920, Mr.. first time officially gathered in Berlin cadets, which included and Hesse. The first such meeting for the initial organizational work was elected the Provisional Bureau, chaired by soon he was elected.

However VD. Nabokov and AI. Kaminkoy Hesse, associated with common political views and long-standing friendship, founded on Nov. 5, 1920, Mr.. and began to publish a Russian-language newspaper Rul 'against the Bolshevik regime in Russia. Initially, Hesse, judging by his memoirs, not only did not show any initiative in the creation of a "booster", but even put up stubborn resistance to such plans. "Not that I stopped loving newspaper work - he wrote many years later - with confidence in the correctness of the daily opportunity to speak and to persuade others did not lose the temptation. But since the first <:> place <:> standing crush the Bolsheviks - to convince the refugees in this mean to knock at the door open. And if on ways and forms of struggle all the more definitely was supposed differences, the imposition of the litter in the eyes of foreigners was extremely undesirable. <:> Subconsciously play probably a role and a sense of degradation in a large change in the St. Petersburg press organ, which was "It", <:> on a modest piece of refugee ". After long discussions, "having exhausted all efforts to prove the uselessness of the newspaper, Hesse focused on a kind of compromise: to help VD. Nabokov arrangements for the publication and using the first opportunity to step aside.

Subsequently, the unexpected death of Nabokov, all these plans upset. However, in the edition, of course, dominated duumvirate: busy commercial issues Kaminka it could be only a secondary role. Hesse was a member of the Berlin group of cadets, representing the right wing of the party. Influence of the newspaper reflected the dominant position of Nabokov and Hesse in Berlin Cadet Program. They have become the unofficial leader of all the supporters of the constitutional right direction among Democrats.

The position paper "Handlebars" is not always coincide with the position of the extreme in their political views emigrants, thus bringing on the wrath of extremists editor. In his memoirs Milyukova provides information on plotting the assassination and Hesse. The cause of the first attack on his article served as a "booster" of the church schism in Orthodoxy, which occurred in the 20-ies. and worried refugee colony in Berlin. In 1928, Mr.. Indoor newspaper two strangers attacked I.V. Hesse, knocked him down and struck with a stick. The victim did not want, he said, to create advertising offenders, "who only wanted to parody the court to get to the big bullies," the complaint refused.

Another attack was made in 1929. group of German Trotskyists. They are, according to Hesse, "swept through the <:> placement <:>, overturning tables, breaking the manuscript, breaking the typewriter and beat <:> Editor Landau

. Hesse participated in many organizations of immigrants: it was one of the organizers of the Committee's Russian members of parliament in Berlin, . Deputy Chairman of the Union of Russian lawyers, . Chairman of the Union of Russian Journalists and writers in Berlin, . member of the Presidium of Russian Public Committee for Famine Relief, . co-director of the Russian shareholders of the publishing association "Word",

Emigration Hesse maintain no relationship with Miliukov, which was very close to Russia, did not accept his proposed "new tactics". Hesse made peace with him only in 1922, just before the assassination attempt on Milyukova the Berlin Philharmonic.

After the assassination of Nabokov Gessen suddenly appeared in the role of the sole political leader of the right of the Cadets in Germany. However, his warehouse, he was not quite suited to this. The point here was not only in his extremely busy publishing activity, but also in its inability to deal with purely practical policy. It is believed that this was the cause of the collapse pravokadetskogo directions.

Since 1921. Hesse published collections of documentary materials "Archives of the Russian Revolution. Until 1937. turned out 22 volumes. In 1922, Mr.. He wrote a 'search for social ideal ". Hesse left two books of memoirs. The first, "In two centuries, was incorporated into the" Archive of the Russian Revolution, he devoted his life to the events of the Civil War. The second, "The years of exile, it became a natural extension, covering events of life in exile (it was published after the death of Hesse).

In 1936, Mr.. Hesse moved to Paris.

After the German occupation of France, in 1941, he moved to the United States where he settled in New York.

There he died March 22, 1943.


Hesse I.V. In the two centuries: Life Report / / Archives of the Russian Revolution. Vol.22. Berlin, 1937.
Hesse I.V. Years of exile: The life record. Paris, 1979.

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HESSE, Joseph V., photo, biography
HESSE, Joseph V., photo, biography HESSE, Joseph V.  Well-known social activist and lawyer, photo, biography
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