GOLITSYN Vasily( prince, lord, the governor, one of the leading figures of the Time of Troubles)
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Biography GOLITSYN Vasily
Years of birth Vasily Golitsyn historians are not known.
After the death of Ivan the Terrible (1584), his successor Theodore Ioannovich was unable to cases of government, and the younger son, Prince Dmitri, was in its infancy.
Vasily Golitsyn at this time has participated in a hike at Narva (1590). In 1591 Prince Dmitry died, and the only contender for the throne was Fedor.
In 1596 Golitsyn has participated in the march to Smolensk. Around the same time, with the death of Theodore (1598) cut short the ruling dynasty and the scene moved the secondary boyar clans - Yuriev Godunovs. In 1599 Galitzine again goes to Smolensk and remains there voivod. However, in 1602 he was already in Moscow, was granted to the nobles and to his gentility and talents once occupied a prominent place.
. Four years, from 1600 to 1603 were poor seasons, even in the summer months did not stop freezing, and in September snowfall
. Came the terrible famine, which claimed up to half a million people. Masses of people flocked to Moscow, where the government handed out money and bread to needy. However, these measures only served to reinforce the economic disruption. Landlords could not feed his slaves and servants, and drove them out of the estates. Those without means of livelihood people turned to robbery, increasing the general chaos. Some gangs grew to several hundred. Order Ataman cotton totaled up to 500 people.
The beginning of the Troubles is to strengthen the rumor that the rightful prince Dmitry alive, which implied that the rule of Boris Godunov illegally. False Dmitry the Pretender, who announced the Polish prince Hell. Vyshnevetskoho of its royal origin, came into close relations with the Polish magnate, voivod Sandomirskii Jerzy Mnishek and the papal nuncio Rangoni.
In early 1604 the Pretender had an audience with the King of Poland, and on April 17 adopted Catholicism. King Sigismund recognized the right Falsdmitry to the Russian throne, and was allowed to all who wish to help the 'prince'. For this Lzhedmitry promised to Poland, Smolensk and Seversky land. For governor Mnishek consent to the marriage of his daughter with Falsdmitry, he also promised to convey his bride into the possession of Novgorod and Pskov. Mnishek outfitted pretender army, consisting of the Zaporozhye Cossacks and Polish mercenaries ( 'opportunistic').
In 1604 the army of the Pretender crossed the border of Russia, many of the city (Morawska, Chernigov, Putivl) surrendered. Golitsyn first voivod best of the regiment was sent against False Dmitry, and with F. I. Mstislavskys took part in the unsuccessful battle of Novgorod-Seversky. Their forces were defeated and moved on Pretender.
In the midst of war, April 13, 1605, Boris Godunov died. Army Godunov almost immediately changed his successor, 16-year-old Fyodor Borisovich. Vasily Golitsyn and his brother Ivan and with half-brother P. Basmanov were the main culprits contributing to the transition towards "Prince Dimitri". Pretender named Golitsyn main provinces in the campaign to Crom to Thule, and from the latter sent him to the capital to prepare her to receive the new sovereign.
June 1 Tsarevich Fyodor Borisovich was dethroned and June 10, brutally murdered along with his mother. It is unknown whether Golitsyn helped brutal death of a family of Boris Godunov.
June 20, 1605 under the general rejoicing Pretender triumphantly entered Moscow. Moscow boyars, led by Bogdan Belsky publicly acknowledged his legal heir. June 24, Archbishop Ignatius of Ryazan, Tula, still confirming the rights Dmitry on the kingdom, was elevated to the patriarchs. Thus, the pretender has received the official support of the clergy. July 18 in the capital was taken as recognized by the pretender queen of her son, Martha, and soon, July 30, the wedding Dmitry on the kingdom.
Not all of the Moscow nobility recognized Falsdmitry legitimate ruler. Immediately on his arrival in Moscow, Prince SHUISKI through intermediaries began to spread rumors about impersonation. Basmanov opened action Shuisky, and June 23, 1605 he was caught and sentenced to death, pardon, only directly from the chopping block.
. Haughtiest Prince Golitsyn also briefly served Pretender: in early 1606 on behalf BEZOBRAZOV brought in Poland, the complaint and would start negotiations on Vladislav
. In Moscow, Dmitry Golitsyn joined Shuya and began to intrigue against Falsdmitry
. Enlisting the support of standing outside Moscow Novgorod and Pskov unit, who was preparing for an expedition to the Crimea, Shuya organized coup.
. On the night of 16 to 17 May 1606 boyar opposition is using against the fury of Muscovites who went to Moscow for a wedding Falsdmitry Polish adventurers, an uprising, during which the Pretender was killed
Golitsyn was a serious competitor in Shuisky claims the throne: there are indications that only the voice of Prince Vorotynsky decided the election in favor of the latter. In an effort Shuyskiy not be complicit in giving him the throne of power-hungry conspiracy Golitsyn could not remain a loyal subject of his rival.
The reign of the representative branch of the Rurik Suzdal boyar Vasily Shuyskiy (1606-1610) did not bring the country calm. In the south, a rebellion broke out Ivan Bolotnikov (1606-1607), gave rise to the beginning of the movement 'thieves'. Rumors about the miraculous deliverance of Tsarevich Dmitry not abated. Announced a new Pretender, went down in history as Tushinsky Thief (1607-1610) or False Dmitry II.
By the end of 1608 the power Tushinskogo Thief extended to Pereslavl-Zaleski, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Uglich, Kostroma, Galich, Vologda. Remained loyal to Moscow, Kolomna, Pereslavl-Ryazan, Smolensk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan, Ural and Siberian cities.
In 1608 Golitsyn, in alliance with Vasili Shuiski led the royal army in the campaign against False Dmitry II. However, in the battle of the Volkhov Golitsyn first fled, producing confusion in Moscow's ratification. Sitting then besieged the king in Moscow, Golitsyn led intrigue against him. He is one of the boyars, decided February 25, 1610 to go to the conspirators, was demanding the dethronement Shuisky.
By 1610 at Golitsyn was already a lot of supporters, and the death of M.V. Skopina-Shuisky passionate Lyapunov announced their candidate for the throne of Golitsyn and raised him accustomed to obey Lyapunov Ryazan Region. Golitsyn was a gathering at the Muscovites, who decided deposition Shuisky, but opposition to the boyars and other approximation е¦цЁе-kiewski prevented Golitsyn prevail. Among the few boyars, he was elected to contract with Zolkiewski of Vladislav and signed the contract, although he dreamed of a throne.
. Consequently Hetman insisted that Golitsyn was sent to the ambassadors to Sigismund to Smolensk (September 1610)
. Here Golitsyn, together with Metropolitan Filaret staunchly defended Russian interests, has earned fame true patriot.
20-21 September 1610 Polish troops entered the capital. However, the looting and violence, . committed by the Polish-Lithuanian troops in the Russian cities, . as well as inter-religious conflict between Catholicism and Orthodoxy have caused the rejection of Polish rule - in the north-west and east of a number of Russian cities 'got under siege' and refused to swear allegiance to Vladislav.,
. In 1610-1613 years ruled Seven Boyars (Mstislavsky, Trubetskoy, Golitsyn, Obolensky, Romanov, Lykov, Sheremetev).
. March 17, 1611 the Poles, who took the dispute to the market for the beginning of the uprising, massacre in Moscow, 7 kill thousands of Muscovites only in China-town.
. At the end of March 1611 the ambassadors to Sigismund, Golitsyn and Filaret, were in custody and in the middle of April as the prisoners were sent into the heart of Poland to the castle of Marienburg.
. In 1611, Moscow rushed to the walls of 1-e militias Lyapunov
. However, as a result of infighting at the council Lyapunov insurgent was killed and the militia dispersed. In the same year the Crimean Tatars, meeting no resistance, ruin the Ryazan Region. Smolensk after a long siege, was captured by the Poles and the Swedes came out of the role of 'allies', ravaged the northern Russian city.
. The second Militia in 1612 led the Nizhny Novgorod Zemsky elder Kuzma Minin, who invited to marshal, RostoV military operations Prince Pozharsky
. In February 1612 the militia moved to Yaroslavl, took him and stood there 4 months. Pozharskii wanted to collect 'general Zemsky council' to discuss plans to combat the Polish-Lithuanian intervention. However, the clerk council did not take place.
. September 22, 1612 is one of the bloodiest events of the Troubles - the city of Vologda was taken by the Poles and Cherkasov (Zaporozhetsie), which destroyed virtually all of its people, including monks Savior Prilutsk monastery.
. October 22 (November 1) 1612 militia led by Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky stormed China Town
. Garrison Rzeczpospolita retreated into the Kremlin. Prince Pozharskii entered into China Town with the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God and vowed to build a temple in memory of this victory.
October 26, 1612 command of the Polish garrison had signed the surrender, firing at the same time from the Kremlin in Moscow boyars and other distinguished persons. The next day the garrison surrendered.
In January 1613 in Moscow brought together delegates from all classes, including peasants to choose a new king. Featured were four candidates: In. I. Shuisky VOROTINSKY, Trubetskoy and Mikhail Romanov. Preserved a tradition that Filaret demanded restrictive conditions for the new king, and pointed to the M. F. Romanov, as the most suitable candidate. Chosen was indeed Mikhail Fedorovich. The election was held on 7 February, but the official announcement was delayed until the 21 th so that during this time to find out how people will take a new king. With the election of the king ended in turmoil, as was now the power, which recognized all and which could rely on.
. In 1616, preparing for a new campaign against Russia, the Poles persuaded Golitsyn write in Moscow in favor of Prince Ladislas, but Golitsyn had the courage this time to reject the Polish demands
Time of Troubles was completed with great territorial losses for Russia. Smolensk had been lost for many decades. West and much of eastern Karelia seized by the Swedes. Not resigned to the national and religious oppression in these territories took virtually all the Orthodox population, both Russian and Karels. Russia lost access to the Gulf of Finland. The Swedes left Novgorod only in 1617, in a completely devastated the city remained only a few hundred residents.
. Deulino world in 1618 (an agreement on prisoner exchange) opened Golitsyn way home, but he never saw his native land.
. January 14, 1619 one of the leading figures of the Time of Troubles, Prince Vasily Golitsyn, died in the Grodno area on the road to Moscow
. He was buried in Vilna, in the sister church of the Holy Spirit. Offspring not left behind.