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Biography GONCHAROV, Ivan
photo GONCHAROV, Ivan
Born June 6, 1812, Mr.. Unlike most writers of the forties XIX century it comes from Simbirsk wealthy merchant family that did not prevent him, however, receive, in addition to the stock businesslike, very careful at that time, education. His mother, a simple, but a good woman, in whose hands it remained, after the death of his father, a child of three, no pity for the education of his son. On the other side of the Volga, in the estate of Princess Khovanskaya, lived a priest, a graduate of the Kazan Theological Academy, an educated and enlightened. He was married to a German woman and with it opened the board, who had a deserved success among the local gentry. This was given to the young Goncharov. The matter of training and education was carried out extremely carefully priest. He followed not only for teaching but also for the reading of their pupils. Children were given only a solid and instructive book, even such a thing as fonvizinsky "Brigadier" was deleted from the list of permitted books to alienate the minds of youth from any hint of frivolity and frivolity. However, home Goncharov reading sentimental novels of Mrs. Genlis, full of ghosts novels of Mrs. Radcliffe, and even mystical philosophising Ekgartsgauzena, but still, in general, the nature of reading was a business and a serious. In 12 years Goncharov read Derzhavina Kheraskov, Ozerov, historical works Rollin, Golikov, travel Mungo Park, Krasheninnikov, Pallas and others. Traveling young Goncharov particularly fond of short stories under the influence of a godfather, Tregubova, old sailor. These stories, together with early reading journeys were, subsequently, the main source solutions Goncharova go round the world. In 1831, Mr.. Goncharov, who spent several years before in a private Moscow hotels, entered into a verbal faculty of Moscow University. It was a time when new life begins and between professors and students between. From the students' circles Goncharov stood aside, the professors a special influence on him had Nadezhdin and Shevyrev, while still young and fresh. In 1835, Mr.. Goncharov finished the course at the University. After a brief service in Simbirsk he moved to St. Petersburg and entered a translator for the Ministry of Finance. In this ministry he served until his departure in a trip around the world, in 1852,. In St. Petersburg in Goncharov soon are fastened literary and artistic acquaintances, and he gets in a circle, where there is carefree worship art for art and creativity in the construction of the objective ideal is the only art. Goncharov is his own man in the house painter Nikolai Apollonovich Maikova, the father of the then fourteen young Apollo Maikova and his brother, the prematurely deceased gifted critic, Valerian Maikova. With circle Belinsky Goncharov met only in 1846, thanks to the "common history", which was read a critic still in manuscript, and led him into an extraordinary delight. But this familiarity could not move to Friendship. In 1846, Mr.. Belinsky was in the midst of passion ideas that ran with us at that time from France - Louis Blanc and Ledru-Rollin. The enemy of all extremes, Goncharov total less keen on these ideas, even in repelling them from George Sand. That's why Belinsky, paying tribute to the utter astonishment talent Goncharova, at the same time, according to his own tale Goncharova, called him a "philistine". In an enthusiastic review of "Ordinary story" Belinsky carefully emphasized the difference between the author of "Who's to blame", . in a product which it did not quite satisfy the artistic side, . but delighted underlying idea, . and Goncharov, . that "an artist and nothing more",
. "Ordinary Story" was an extraordinary success, yet universal. Even the Nordic Bee ", bright haters so-called" natural school ", who considered Gogol's Russian Paul de Kock, reacted very favorably to the novice, despite the fact that the novel was written by all the rules of the hated school Buе-haryn. In 1848, Mr.. was published in "Contemporary," a short story Goncharov of bureaucratic life: "Ivan Savic Podzhabrin", written back in 1842, but only now caught in print, when the author suddenly became famous. In 1852, Mr.. Goncharov enters the expedition of Admiral Putiatina who went to Japan to engage in intercourse with this, still inaccessible to foreign country. Goncharov was seconded to the expedition as the Secretary Admiral. Returning from a trip to the eastern half of the interrupted ensuing war, Goncharov published in the magazine separate chapters "Frigate Pallas" and then diligently taken as "Oblomov", which appeared in 1859 in the light of Mr.. Its success was as universal as the "common history". In 1858, Mr.. Goncharov passes in the censorship department (first censor, then a member of the Chief Directorate for printing). In 1862, Mr.. He was briefly editor of the official "North Mail". In 1869, Mr.. appeared in the pages of The Messenger of Europe "third great novel Goncharova," Precipice, "which, by its very nature, could not have a universal success. In the early seventies Goncharov retired. He has written since only a few small sketches [ "Million agony", . "Literary Evening", . "Notes on the identity of Belinsky", . "Better late, . than never "(author's confession), . Memoirs, . "Servants", . "Breach of faith"], . that, . with the exception of "Millions of agony", . added nothing to his glory,
. Goncharov and closed quietly spent the rest of his life in a small apartment of 3 rooms at Moss, where he died Sept. 15, 1891, Mr.. He was buried at the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Goncharov was not married and literary property bequeathed to his family of his old servant. These simple framework of a long and knew no strong shocks of life the author of "ordinary history" and "Oblomov". And it is a serene flatness, which shows and in the appearance of the famous writer, has created a public belief that of all types created by him closer resembles Goncharov Oblomov. The reason for this assumption is partly gave himself Goncharov. Recall, for example, the epilogue of "Oblomov": "We walked along the wooden sidewalks in the Vyborg side, two master. One of them was Stoltz, another of his friend, writer, full, with apathetic person, pensive, as if sleepy eyes ". Of further proves that apathetic writer, conversing with Stolz, "lazily yawning," is none other than the author of the novel. In the "Frigate Pallas" Goncharov, exclaims: "Evidently, I was born to be very lazy, laziness infect everything that comes in contact with me". Of course, himself brought ironically Goncharov, represented an elderly writer's Skudelnikova of "literary evening". Skudelnikov "as villages and not move in his chair, as if grown or fallen asleep. Occasionally he raised his apathetic eyes, glanced at the reader, and again lowered. He, apparently, was indifferent to this reading, and literature, and generally everything around him ". Finally, in the author's confession Goncharov expressly states that the image of Oblomov's not just the result of observation of the environment, but also the result of introspection. And on the other Goncharov from the first time gave the impression of Oblomov. Angelo de Gubernatis thus describes the appearance of the novelist: "Average growth, . tight, . slow in gait and in all movements, . with an impassive face, as if fixed (spento) eye, . He seems quite indifferent to the bustle of the poor human, . is fumbling around ",
. Still Goncharov - Oblomov not. To take sixty years ago on a sailing ship voyage around the world, it was necessary determination, least of all a reminder Oblomov. There is Oblomov Goncharov and when we get acquainted with the thoroughness with which he wrote his novels, though, precisely because of this scrutiny, inevitably leading to a slow, public and suspected Goncharova in Oblomovism. They see the author's laziness, where in fact terribly intense mental work. Of course, the list of works Goncharova very neobshirny. Peers Goncharova - Turgenev, Pisemsky, Dostoevsky - less than the living, and have written much more. But how wide is the capture in Goncharov, as large amount of fiction material, consisting in three of his novels. Belinsky said of him: "What else would the ten stories, in Goncharov fit in one frame". We Goncharova few minor, . size, . things, only at the beginning and the end of his 50-year literary career - means, . just before, . as he swung to its full width, . and only after, . his creative force dried up - he wrote his story and a few small studies,
. Between the painters there are those who can write only the broad canvas. Goncharov - among them. Each of his novels conceived in colossal amounts, each one tries to reproduce the whole periods, whole columns of Russian life. Many of these things and you can not write if you do not fall into repetition and not go beyond the actual novel, t. e. if you only play what the author himself saw and observed. In both Aduyevs in Oblomov, in Stolz, a grandmother of Vera and Mark Volokhov Goncharov embodied by an unusually intense synthesis, all the features of his experiences to the periods of Russian social development, which he regarded as the main. And on the thumbnails for a separate reproduction of small events and persons, unless they are necessary accessories overall broad picture, he was not able, at the main warehouse of its more synthetic than analytic talent. Just because his complete works relatively well neobemisto. It's not a Oblomovism, but in the literal inability Goncharova write small things. "You should ask - he says in the author's confession - my collaboration as a reviewer or a journalist: I tried - and nothing worked except the pale of articles, inferior to any busiest pen usual magazine staff". "Literary Evening", for example - in which the author, contrary to the basic features of his talent, took a small subject - a relatively weak product, except for two or three pages. But when the same Goncharov "Millions of agony" took while in a critical, but still a vast topic - a review "Woe from Wit", then turned decisively big thing. In small studies, in the space of a few pages, scattered so much intelligence, taste, profundity and insight, that it could not be counted among the best fruits of creative work Goncharova. Even more untenable is the parallel between Goncharov Oblomov and when we get acquainted with the process of the birth of novels Goncharov. Accepted wonder extraordinary thoroughness in Flaubert's thought and razrabatyvanii their works, but hardly at the cost of lesser intensity in the work of Goncharova got his work. The audience was widely believed that Goncharov write a novel, then rests for ten years. Is not true. The intervals between the appearance of novels were full in Goncharov intense, although not palpable, but still creative work. "Oblomov" appeared in 1859, but it was conceived and sketched in the program immediately after the "common history", in 1847, Mr.. "Precipice" printed in 1869, but the concept of it and even the outline of individual scenes and characters still refer to 1849. As soon as any plot took possession of our imagination, a writer, he immediately began to sketch some parts of the stage and read them to your friends. All this is so overwhelmed by it and excited that he spilled "all to anybody, listen to the views, arguing. Then began the work connected. Completed, there were whole chapters that are sometimes even echoed in the press. For example, one of the central places "Oblomov" - "Dream of Oblomov" - appeared in print a decade before the appearance of the novel (in the "Illustrated Almanac" Contemporary "in 1849). Excerpts from "Precipice" appeared in the world for 8 years before the novel. And the main job in the meantime continued to "go to the head", and deeply curious fact - Goncharova it "shall not haunt, harass, posing the scenes". "I hear, - says more Goncharov - excerpts of their conversation, and I often thought, God forgive me, I'm not making this up, but it's in the air all around me, and I just have to watch and ponder". Artworks Goncharova before they were thought out in every detail, that the very act of writing becomes a thing of secondary. For years he thought about his novels, but wrote them for weeks. The entire second part of "Oblomov", for example, is written in five-week stay in Marienbad. Goncharov wrote it, not leaving the table. The common idea of Goncharov, as Oblomov, gives, therefore, completely false idea about it. The real basis of his personal character that determined them, and the whole course of his work - not apathy, and balance his writing of the individual and complete lack of agility. Belinsky said about the author of "ordinary history": "The author has no love, . no hostility towards it creates individuals, . they did not cheer, . not angry, . He makes no moral lessons or they, . any reader, . He seems to think: who is in trouble, . that and the response, . and my business side ",
. You can not take these words of purely literary characteristic. When he wrote a review of "ordinary history", he was a friendly familiar with the author of. And in private conversations forever raging critic jumped on Goncharova for nonchalance: "You do not care - he said to him - comes across a scoundrel, a fool, a freak or a decent, kind nature - all the same paint: neither love nor hatred for anyone". For this regularity of life ideals, right, of course, follows from the regularity of temperament, Goncharova Belinsky called "German" and "official". The best source for the study of temperament Goncharova can serve as a "Frigate Pallas" - a book that is a diary of spiritual life Goncharova for two whole years, moreover, carried out at least everyday situation. Scattered around the book, pictures of tropical nature in some places, for example, in the famous description of the sunset at the equator, rise to a truly dazzling beauty. But the beauty kakoyN quietly and solemnly, to describe the author should not extend beyond the smooth, serene and carefree contemplation. Beauty same passion, poetry, storm completely inaccessible to the brush Goncharova. When the "Pallas" was the Indian Ocean, the hurricane broke over her in the whole form ". Satellites, natural to assume that Goncharov wanted to describe this, though terrible, but at the same time a magnificent natural phenomenon, called him on the deck. But, comfortably seated on one of the few places in the cabin of the deceased, he did not even want to watch the storm and was almost forcibly dragged back to top. - "What kartinaN" - asked his captain, waiting for the rapture and praise. "Outrageous, mess!" - He answered, mainly occupied by what was supposed to go "all wet in the cabin, change shoes and dress". If we exclude from the "Frigate Pallas" page 20, for a total of describing the beauties of nature, we obtain two volumes almost exclusively genre observations. Wherever the author has arrived - at the Cape of Good Hope, in Singapore, to Java, in Japan - it is almost exclusively occupied by trifles of everyday life, genre types. Once in London the day of the funeral of the Duke of Wellington, stirring the whole of England, he had "deliberately waited another day, when London will be released from the abnormal situation and live his normal life". "Many people were glad to see such an exceptional case - notes with the enemy" disorder "in all its manifestations - but I was smiling tomorrow's ordinary day". Likewise, rather indifferently "Goncharov" went after the others in the British Museum, in the consciousness only need to see this colossal collection of curios and objects of knowledge ". But his irresistibly "drawn all the street". "With the untried pleasure - says more Goncharov - I looked into everything, went to the stores, peering into the house, went out to the suburbs, the markets, looking at the whole crowd and everyone he met separately. What to watch sphinxes and obelisks, . I like it better to stand for an hour at the crossroads and look, . how to meet two Englishmen, . first try to tear each other's hand, . then inquired about the health of each other and wish one another all the well-being, curiously watching, . both face two cooks with baskets on their shoulders, . as rushes endless double, . triple chain crew, . like a river, . out of it with inimitable dexterity turn up a crew and merge with other thread, . or how the whole chain of instantly numb, . Only a policeman from the sidewalk raise his hand,
. In taverns, theaters - everywhere I look closely, as they do, like having fun, eating, drinking,. Syllable Goncharova - surprisingly buoyant and even-tempered, without a hitch. No it colorful sayings Pisemsky, nervous first got heaps of expressions Dostoevsky. Goncharivske periods rounded, built according to the rules of syntax. Syllable Goncharova always keeps the same pace, without haste and without slowing down, not hitting any of the pathos or the indignation. All this huge stock of artistic serenity, . dislike of the "disorder" and the preferences of ordinary extravagant could not lead to, . what types Goncharova stand apart in a number of types, . created by other members of his literary generation,
. Rudin Lavretzky Plekhanov, heroes Nekrasov "Sasha", which
... been crisscrossing the globe,
Things are looking a gigantic, --
all victims of the fatal mismatch of the ideal and reality, the fatal inability to work hard to find a soul. But all of this together so people standing on top of the spiritual consciousness of his era, a minority of people, so to say, extraordinary, near which must also have existed, and ordinary people. Latest something in his face and decided to depict Aduyevs Goncharov in his first novel, where, however, did not as opposed to a minority, but as people, adjacent to the new trend, but no big rush. With regard to this basic intention of the author of "ordinary history" long dominated one significant misunderstanding. Almost all critics reacted suspiciously to the "positive" senior Adueva. Even the "northern shoulder", going in 1847, Mr.. "Ordinary story", found it necessary to say a few words in defense of idealism from a narrow careerist view of officialdom uncle. Generally we can say that both the public and critics put Adueva slightly higher Famusov. Author's confession Goncharova ( "Better late than never") is contrary to this interpretation. For categorical statement of the author, he represented Adueva Sr. wanted to express the first "glimmer of consciousness need to work, this is not routine, and the living things in the fight against stagnation of all the Russias". "In the fight his uncle and his nephew reflected the then, . only just beginning to break-up of old concepts and habits, . sentimentality, . caricature increase feelings of friendship and love, . Poetry idleness, . family and home lies in the sham nature of the unprecedented feelings, . waste of time for visits, . on unnecessary hospitality and t,
. etc., in a word - all idle, dreamy and affektatsionnaya side of the old mores. All this dying away, passing: a weak glimmer of a new dawn, something of a sober, business, necessary. First, t. e. exhausted in the figure of old nephew. Second - t. e. sober awareness of the necessity of the case, labor, knowledge - expressed in his uncle ". Aduyev, for example, arranges factory. "Then it was a daring novelty, a little humiliation is not - I'm not talking about breeders bars, whose factories were among the ancestral estates were obrok article, which they themselves do not engage in. Secret advisers settled on a little. Chin is not allowed, and the title of the merchant - was not flattering ". You can treat this differently remarkable characteristic of Goncharova convergence "cause" and "businesslike", but we can not admit that his plan was very deep. Merit, or feature, Goncharova that he noticed the evolution of public sentiment in those areas where rapid peers saw one of its vulgarity. They looked at the heavens, and Goncharov attentively peered into the ground. With the latter, incidentally, is excellent as a genre of "ordinary history". Check out the young Adueva from the village servants, noble toady Anton Ivanovich, housekeeper Agrafena, able to express their love only to rattle and furiously cursing, and t. d. and t. d. - All this wonderful fruit of realism that never lose their value and which must Goncharov solely to the fact that his mental gaze with especial hunting stopped in the phenomena of life for most. Extremely bright colors of the genre is the best part and the most outstanding novel Goncharov - Oblomov ". The author does not have the slightest hunting whatever was to expose a Oblomovka; for a single corner of the picture did not imposed a more dense or lighter colors; equally illuminated, . she stands before the audience, . as living, . throughout the convexity of its amazing detail captured,
. Not these, however, the epic perfection were the cause of the amazing experiences, which in its time produced a "Oblomov". Secret of his success - in terms of the era, in the passionate and unanimous desire to sever all ties with the hateful past, has characterized the years immediately following the Crimean War. I had a vivid embodiment of our apathy, we need a nickname to refer to our pre-reform inertia and conservatism - and it quickly became the universal everyday life as soon as it Dob formulated in his famous essay: "What is Oblomoffdom. Recent evidence boil down to, . strongly that everyone saw the elements Oblomoffdom; all seemed, . found that the explanation of the imperfections of our social system, . just turn away in horror at the prospect of an equally fruitless and inglorious pass vital field, . Goncharivske as a hero of the novel just swore an oath to destroy all traces of itself in this similarity,
. In contrast to Oblomov Goncharov led German Stolz. In its author's confession Goncharov confessed that Stolz - a person who is not quite good. "The image Stolz, - he says, - pale, not real, not alive, but just an idea". Must add that the idea represented by the Stolz - ugly. Not the organizer of his fortune to build the ideal. Any fine-feeling woman, sort of, of course, is Olga, probably could be able to recognize that the laziness of Oblomov is a hundred times more spiritual treasure, worthy of the most ardent love than in the bustling, self-satisfied philistinism Stolz. Only ten years separate "Oblomov" and "Precipice", but a terrible change had taken place during this short period in the grouping of public parties. Proudly and arrogantly launched a new generation into the arena of Russian public life and in some three or four years, has severed all links with the past. From the previous consensus not left the slightest trace. Public split on the idea of sharply hostile to the flow, not wanting to have anything in common with each other, exchange threats, serious accusations and curses. The generation that had so recently considered itself the bearer of progress, it was absolutely forced into: he threw in the face of accusations of obsolescence, backwardness, even misoneism. It is clear that the resentment caused by these, largely undeserved reproaches, was very great. Goncharov was never close to the best elements, he wrote, "objective" affair, when his peers crucified for the destruction of feudalism, and for freedom of cardiac inclinations, for the rights of "poor people" as poetry "of revenge and sorrow". But why he is less than total and was inclined to leniency, when the "cliff" intervened in the dispute between the "Fathers" and "children". Stimulation of the deprived Goncharova part of its strength, which lay precisely in tranquility. "Precipice" contains many superb individual episodes, but in general it is - the least successful of the novels Goncharov. In areas close to the "children" to "The Precipice" looked at both the pamphlet against the young generation in the areas close to the "fathers", saw, on the contrary, in the Marche Volokhova sharp, but quite true picture of the new flow. There is an average view, which argues that Goncharov, with his profound intellect, could not the whole generation of the sixties to personify the image of cynical ruffian, does not scruple to their personal needs rook-mail scams. This, according to this understanding of "Precipice", is only about some sympathetic elements Goncharov movement of the sixties. Be that as it may, in the common noun Mark Volokhov not addressed, nor were they opposite Volokhova - rushing esthetician Paradise, a book conceived and heroine of the novel, Vera. In all its splendor talent Goncharova affected persons in the secondary. Grandma and her entire entourage outlined forcefully expressive abilities Goncharova. Truly artistic gem is the image of a simpleton Marthe. In the gallery of Russian women living types, caught in all its, so to speak, prose poetry, a portrait of Marthe is one of the first places. Collection of works by Glazunov Goncharova published in 9 volumes (St. Petersburg, 3rd ed., 1884 - 1896). Some novels and "Frigate Pallas" stood for several publications. Paucity of biographical material about Goncharov considerably in recent years been enriched by the publication of correspondence with Stassiulevitch Goncharova, investigations M.F. Superanskogo, French scientist Mason and others. This establishes a new material fact, quite exceptional in the history of literature. Before us is the largest writer and, moreover, the representative of the rare literary dispassion, which, however, very often located on the border of this madness. Descended from a pathological family, . some members of which even ended their lives in the house for the insane, . Goncharov was a psychopathic-insecure people (mainly, . in connection with the weather), . possessed at times clearly expressed delusions of persecution,
. In particular, the ineradicable conviction that Turgenev was his worst enemy, and hooks his subjects, took quite delusional form. Goncharov not hesitate to assert that "agents" of Turgenev rummaging in the drawers of his table, steal from his drafts types, telegraphed them Turgenev, and that on this basis, wrote his works. New materials (mainly correspondence with Stassiulevitch) also clearly show how far was the author of "Precipice" from the circle of ideas, of which he thought to represent. Read very little (by his own admission, . never bought books), . he is so little watched the most radical, . who chose the theme of his novel, . that at one time was negotiating with Nekrasov (who did not know the content of "Precipice") to print it in "Notes of the Fatherland",
. - However, the new biographical material in no way alter the established interpretations of creativity Goncharova. If we can not talk about "objectivity" Goncharova (thesis of the book EA. Lacki), then only in relation to his personal temperament. But when the critics say about the "objectivity" Goncharova, it underlines his public indifference. And this trait in the new material appears particularly clearly. Anxiety quest was completely alien Goncharov. - Wed. Article. Belinsky (t. XI), Dobrolubova (t. II), Druzhinina (t. VII), Pisarev (t. I), Skabichevskys (t. I and II), Shelgunova ( "Case", 1869, N 7), Op. F. Miller Writers after Gogol ", a book about Goncharov VP. Ostrogorsky (Moscow, 1888), Art. DS. Merezhkovsky in his "Eternal Companions", MA. Protopopov in Russian Thought "(1891, N 11); LN. Maikov, in the "Russian Antiquities" (1900, N 1); Superansky, in the Journal of Europe "(1907, N 2, 1908, N 11 and 12);" Russian School "(1912, N 5 - 6); E. A. Lacki, IA. Goncharov (2 nd ed., 1912); п-.пг. Kony, "On the path of life" (t. II); SA. Vengerov (ibid., t. V), K. Voensky, in The Russian Messenger "(1906, N 10); AA. Mason, in "Russian Antiquities" (1911, N 3, 10, 11, 1912, N 3), "Correspondence" Stasyulevich (t. II and III). S. Vengerov.

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