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Biography GRIBOEDOV Alexander
photo GRIBOEDOV Alexander
Born in Moscow on 4 January 1795, Mr.. His first experience showed him that on Wednesday musty old nobility, whose bold muckraker he made over time. As a child he saw around him arrogant and smug face Famusov, the inspector general, Hryuminyh. They were relatives or acquaintances of his mother lay, . strives to conceal his cramped position, . intricate promiscuity worthless husband, . observe traditions of the genus, . going back to departures from the Polish nobles and decorated with the names of many of the dignitaries before Peter the Great, . keep anything from favorite society and with links to at least a bright future for children,
. Domineering and ambitious, she was capable of torn lives of children, rape their nature, defy their will and inclination, if only to fulfill his plan for withdrawal from a shabby state. But, . exceeding mind, . understanding of the spirit of the century and the cultural tastes of the majority of their peers, . she knew, . what, . but old-fashioned beaten track, . Aleksandrovskoe in time for a career were, . sometimes much more quickly and successfully, . new ways, . where gentility rested on education,
. Do not part with their cherished ideas, and not leaving the closed circle of the pole of the nobility, she wanted to show on child rearing example of a reasonable use of the novelty. In her house, except for language, music flourished; tutors Alexander and his sister Mary were educated foreigners - Petrozilius, then Ion; university professors were invited for private lessons. The boy read a lot at home, and clearly, and secretly, of pranks and mischief, which affected him early in the hot, rebellious temper, he passed to the strong, passionate, reading, quite captures it. Neither mother, . nor her brother, . enjoyed unlimited influence in the house, . as a man with great connections and knowledge of the world (later he had taken were the main features for Famusov), . could not guess, . what happened to the boy's inquisitive mind, . which they so constantly directed, . seemed, . in the spirit of caste traditions, . sooner it is put into terms of future patrons, . nobles or "random" people,
. He saw much, much doubt from the fact that it imposed as the unshakable foundation of worldly wisdom, and with difficulty endure the oppression of loving, but wayward and unbending mother. University Noble guesthouse was the first of its school. Mental awakening completed the University of. He acted and rendezvous with the youth, . which is still held, . contrary minding, . and a variety of scientific interests, . evolved through the Freedom of, . which the law student could listen to any courses at other faculties, . and personal influence of the most talented professors,
. If some of them, . like Schlozer, . were useful for the thoroughness of factual information, . they reported, . priohochivaya to work independently (Griboyedov always retained a love for history lessons, . explains in his comedy back to old ideas, . healthy and whole, . - As well as to economic sciences), . a former professor at Gottingen Boulet, . versatile, . kind of advocate and the ability to guess the talent and the inclination of boys, . had an effect on all development Griboedova, . evaluated and promoted him from the crowd, . expanded its horizons, . studied with him privately, . gave him a special interest in world literature, and above all to play, . which he specifically engaged, . and, . from Plautus, . Terence and Moliere and ending with the later French comics, . prompted him to get acquainted with the masterpieces of dramatic art,
. Participating (according to legend) at the same time and in student performances, which were then almost permanent institution Griboedov, thus, rendered from the university to prepare for the type of literary activity, which made him famous. Even his students' literary experience, or rather, pranks, given dramatic form. That did not come down to us a parody of the "Dmitry Donskoy", such an attempt (which shows one of his comrades) sketched from real life a few humorous scenes, . which would have been withdrawn pets and family, . whole circle avuncular, . but not in the state, . and in the backstage attire and behavior,
. It also lost, a sketch can be considered the first edition of "Woe from Wit", which since then has not parted with more Griboyedov, reflecting on themselves all the transitions and changes in its development. The years spent at university, in connection with home preparation and extensive reading, had to Griboyedov such a serious preparation for life, what education he excelled all his contemporaries in literature and society. Over the years, spreading his erudition, . and familiarity with the world verbiage, . Boulet began under the influence of several one -, . lozhnoklassicheskom direction, . but then freely swept all, . that was alive and strong in the poetry of all ages and schools - and Shakespeare, . Byron, . and Romantics,
. As the progressed its development and together with the increased critical attitude towards the surrounding reality, to Griboyedov becoming burdensome dependency and humdrum prose of life, has long been destined for him. In a later official document he himself testifies that already preparing for the exam on a doctorate, when the enemy invaded Russia. In all kind, . He loved homeland sincere set of contemporaries, . fussily offered for its state-owned type of patriotism, it seemed a shame not to take part in National Defense, . so full of life and thirst, . with deeds and dangers, . attracted him to the ranks of troops,
. At the same time wanted to set a turning point in his fate delivered him, at least temporarily, from family and secular relations, among whom he was choking, and promised free personal lives, are constantly repressed by the watchful eye and care. Not without opposition from the home, he insisted, and enlisted as a volunteer in the regiment, recruited by Count Saltykov. But while doing this unit, Napoleon managed to leave Moscow, and then Russia. Poetry of self-sacrifice for the fatherland could no longer enthrall Griboyedov, since it freed itself from the invasion itself was prepared to prescribe the laws of Europe. But he returned to Moscow to begin to live again with Famusov and Zagoretskimi and prefer bureaucratic career attractive enough, apparently, but nevertheless promised independence cavalry service in the remote corners of Belarus. Here, first in Irkutsk hussar regiment, then at the headquarters of the cavalry reserve, he spent over three years. That was a temptation, which was not easy to survive. First Griboedov, so long repressed, passionately devoted himself to hobbies and pranks at the front and the charm of the old gusarstva, and not depart from his comrades in the most tumultuous venture. All assimilated in the time of the student body has receded as if somewhere in the farthest plan, and she's prose, from which escaped was Griboedov, sucked it into its quagmire. But the fumes cleared, passion pouleglis; lack of culture, backwardness and crudeness of the new environment made known in this world; book, meditation, dreams and creativity once again were the only refuge. Brest-Litovsk, . where Griboyedoff was seconded to the staff of the reserves and was in a humane and educated Gen Kologrivov, . these newly awakened in him the tastes were supported, . first in unpretentious, . but straightforward and honest small, . his comrades Begichev, . also sick of the emptiness of life hussar, . then in a group of staff officers, . brightens my leisure amateurish exercises in literature, . especially the writing of poetry, . writing and translation of plays,
. Here Griboedov again takes up the pen, . sent to Moscow, . in the Journal of Europe ", . his first article ( "About cavalry reserves" and "Description of the holiday in honor of Kologrivov", . 1814) and graduated from translation of the play "Le secret du menage", . he called "young wife",
. He still would not know a syllable, . did not dare to violate the charming witty liberties, . which then characterized his conversation, . stiffness psevdoklassicheskogo dialogue, his first experience on stage leaves much to be desired, . although, . as demonstrated by the latest attempt to resume play, . It looks and now is not without interest,
. The decisive turn for the tastes of the first youth led him finally to realize that to stay longer in the army should not be that only in a different environment and with other people he can show his talent. Visited in 1815, Mr.. in St. Petersburg, engaging literary connections there and dating and preparing its transition to a panel of foreign affairs, he was in March 1816, Mr.. retired. Military episode that crashed in a strange wedge in his biography, was now behind. It was hard, was ashamed to remember about those early years, completely shattered, but the margin of observations on life and the people greatly enriched. Figures Skalozub, it "strongly contaminated the present century" cousin, Goryachev, Repetilova (whose prototype was a comrade-commissioned officer) and then created under the direct influence of the meetings and relations of early youth. Even in the biography Chatsky (as far as it can be constructed from the data submitted to the comedy and not quite mellow chronologically) we can assume a short period of fascination with military service, also left behind a residue of bitter irony. Moving to St. Petersburg was important to Griboedova; after begins, . he said, . barbarism in the backwoods of Belarus and Lithuania, . he not only returned once again to the cultural life, . but went down in a range of developed, . noble-minded and loving home people, . which until then he did not know,
. It began a painful afterword heroic years of World War II and wars for the liberation of Europe, to meet the rising responses were grouped and fresh, . gifted power of the younger generation, . educated in the best time of Alexander's reign,
. In the form of resurgent Masonic lodges, . then in the form of intellectual circles and salons, . the end going to the organization of secret societies, . with the objectives of social regeneration, . these young people should strive in whatever was to break with routine and stagnation and dreams of a bright future,
. By her early and joined Griboedov just came in the bureaucratic world, and St. Petersburg high society, and in the corners of the theater behind the scenes (which lured him, and heartfelt passion and love for the stage), and the circle of writers. Much more it must have seemed to outsiders unsteady. He could not waste time on such trifles, . as the translation of the French play "The court's infidelity, or a parody of the author's methods Zagoskina (" bast theater) behind the scenes, . probably, . He seemed to many a complaisant suppliers benefisnyh News, . not the first, moreover, parsing, . because it remained a heavy syllable,
. In the literature, he also did not determine their relationship to the dispute then the schools of the classics and romantics, drawing closer and the members Shishkovskaya "Conversations", and Pushkin and his friends. When the long time it seemed, and not one Griboyedov, authoritative judge Katenin translated Burger ballad "Lenore" is considered a harbinger of Romanticism, Griboedov print made to protect crony translation. On the other hand, he, together with the same Katenin wrote the comedy "Student", where in the person of the hero of the play, ex-seminarian Benevolsky, ridiculed, sometimes lapsing into caricature exaggeration, fancy sentimentality and romanticism. This mixing of schools and the views are not all indicated, however, the shakiness of the young writer, has already manifested itself here is the independence with which Griboedov subsequently took his place among the main lines, stating that "both lives and writes freely". He has appeared in the light of, . where its label, . but cold and strict wit surprised and confused, . suggesting interlocutors false idea the anger of his mind, . - According to Pushkin, . preventing them solve it extraordinarily gifted, . perhaps, . great man,
. In good standing, he was in his board, and the dream to see his mother, a diplomat were sold. But that inner work that took place in it, almost no one suspected. Man, . increasingly closer to the best of the future Decembrist, . who considered later among his friends Alexandra Odoevskogo, . Chaadaev and Ryleeva, . could still in their literary works to cultivate the few old-fashioned forms, . but bolder validating their protest against the present system of things,
. His historical sympathies were able to show him (as Ryleyev, in his "Thoughts") greatness and courage in the old days, whose example should inspire new generations. That is the plan which has reached us only in the form of a script of the drama of World War II, . depicting, . along with the features of national heroism, . and miscellaneous abominations ", . whereas at night in the Archangel Cathedral in the shadow of the great Russians flock, . mourn the loss of the fatherland and pray to heaven for his salvation,
. But more expensive than it was for the direct intervention in Griboedova topic of the day - and from early adolescence emerges when it was abandoned altogether intent "Woe from Wit", . retelling of the Moscow juicy story turns into a harmonious whole, . obviously, . which took a satirical spot to have the life of high society,
. This - the second edition of the comedy, . also did not come down to us, . but the attestation of, . who heard it read by the author, . known and change, . made it for the third and final edition (for example, . to address a number of actors wife Famusov),
. More mature in its design and social significance, it is, of course, was written a lively and witty. This convinces the progress made in the meantime Griboyedov in the development of verse and freely moving dialogue. In the play "His family, . Married or Bride, . he wrote in clubbing together with Shakhovskoi and Khmelnitsky, . Griboyedov owned five events of the second act, . amazing, . in this respect, . compared with the first experiment, a typical "Griboyedov" verse has been born,
. Similarly, in prose comedy "Student" - how you can distinguish between what belongs in it Griboyedov - there are living everyday features (serfdom large master Zvezdova, Molchalin suavity Benevolsky, hussar manners Sablina). With what kind of diligence should have been rid, . even in small things, . Griboyedov favorite piece! But it's not destined to be the author to finish it, his first St. Petersburg period, . full hobbies, . pranks, . serious thought and constantly progressing literary work, . suddenly stops,
. Participation Griboedova, . as a second, . angered at all, . by bitter opponents, . Sheremetev duel with Zavadovsky, . nearly ruined his or her position, . especially as it became known, . that was suggested after the fact and the duel between the seconds to,
. Mother Griboedova insisted temporarily remove him from St. Petersburg to give the lie rumors and gossip and to mitigate the wrath of the authorities. In vain he protested, pleaded, shunned, and all was set in motion, and the place of Secretary of the Embassy in Persia was followed by secured against his will. With genuine sadness he left the fatherland, friends and the woman he loves. A few months, . After intentionally delayed trip to Russia and the Caucasus, . postpones the possible beginning of this honorable links, . Griboyedov entered in Tehran (March 4, 1819), . Watching a little morals to the east, . types and order, . sometimes reminded him of, . For all his sympathy with the Russian past, . Drevnerusskie,
. There he had to stay in the capital of the Shah, Persia had a tour of the ruins and Griboyedov, . reminiscent of the heroic past of Peers, . and on the mountain and steppe Topper, . have reduced it to the poets, . dervishes, . court, . small reigning princes, . and, . Finally, . led him to Tabriz, . where the full quiet "diplomatic monastery Griboedov spent much of its first service in the East,
. Duties were simple, mostly boil down to repel the intrigues of Abbas Mirza, in which actually consisted of European embassies. Neither the Russian colleagues, or foreign diplomats could not understand the needs and diverse interests Griboedova. He left the following: a heavily studied oriental languages (Persian and Arabic), . then read, . or with an incomprehensible for himself easily and fertility again worked on his comedy, . surprised, . there, . where he has no listeners, . poems and poured,
. Alone with his thoughts he had a deeper meaning of the INEC in his chosen plot, raised characters, . originally sketched from nature, . to the value of the typical images (lists of supposed originals of his characters are not credible); expanded and raised the importance of the environment, introduced the secular image of an empty crowd, . senseless and intolerant itself against the knowledge, . humanity, . liberty of the best properties of like-minded friends and folded the typical character Chatsky; made him champion of progress and national identity in the face of triumphant reaction,
. As a man well-read-sided, . He could not feel the influence of known samples; malicious gossip about the alleged madness Chatsky somewhat resembles revenge abderitov Democritus in the story Wieland "Geschichte der Abderiten"; Moliere's "Misanthrope" its characteristic Alceste, . delicately constructed by a combination of his frustration in people with a passion yoke, . which he hopes to rescue and raise up their level, . Even some individual poems (eg, . concluding words Chatsky) is more influenced by "Woe from Wit", but the excitement and support, . rendered such specimens, . identified only part of the creative work, . which was all bear, . suffered, . written with the blood of the heart,
. In Tabriz were rough finished the first two act comedy, in its third and last edition. Business orders encouraged at times Griboedova to travel to Tbilisi, once he had brought from Persia and returned home a whole crowd of accidents, barely covered with rags Russian prisoners unjustly detained by Persian authorities. It unflinchingly executed company drew special attention to the Griboyedov Ermolov, immediately grasped it rare talent and an original mind, and pity on what such a person has to get bored and fade into a dull and ignorant country. This coincided well with the rising stronger desire Griboedova break free from the "realm of the sad" (triste royaume), in which "not only learned nothing, but you forget that before he knew". Ermolov has, finally, the appointment Griboedova Foreign Secretary of the commander in chief in the Caucasus. Since his move to Tiflis again revived and he himself, and successfully began to move forward comedy. Both the initial act had been completed and a fair copy transcribed in Tiflis. Among formal sessions, . memoranda and draft, . is always expected from Griboedova as a specialist on the East, . slowly written the last two steps - and not for lack of inspiration, . and perceived by the author of the incompleteness of his knowledge of modern metropolitan society, . had time, . as he heard, . greatly change, . though not for the better, . five years (1818 - 1823), . Griboyedov held away from him,
. It was necessary for good comedy once again plunge into a Moscow high society, vacation, first short, then extended and the overall coverage for almost two years, has led to the desired goal Griboedova. The joy of meeting with friends, increased opportunity, thanks to them, observe the life. There was a public meeting in Moscow, where he would not show Griboedov, especially to avoid all such gatherings, with a lot of people he met then, later in the summer had gone to Begichev in its name, with. Dmitrievskoe County Efremov, Tula province, and there shut himself up for half a day reading and then write to his friend and his wife, he was in the summer of 1824. graduated "Woe from Wit" and returned with the manuscript of it in Moscow, devoted to their only secret sister. Let the random read out the entire city the appearance of a merciless satire, directed, as they say, against the Muscovites in general and the influential people in particular. Save the manuscript in secret was impossible, . and Griboyedoff tasted on a "tribute to the glory"; together with the exultation of grumbling could be heard, . abuse, . slander; people recognized themselves in portraits, . perpetuation comedy, . threatened duel, . complained to the local authorities, . sneak in Petersburg,
. According to the most Griboedova, . the minute, . as the publicity it has acquired a coveted piece - about whom he had not guessed, . knowing, . that heavy censorship would not allow him on the stage, . and, at best, only dreaming about the printing of it - he succumbed to the temptation to hear their poems on stage, . front of the crowd, . to reason that they should, . and decided to go to St. Petersburg to petition for its formulation,
. With regret, he parted with the best jewelry pieces, . cut, . weakened and smoothed, . Conscious, . that in its original form "Woe from Wit" was "much more magnificent and higher values", . than now, . in "frivolous dress, . in which he was obliged to clothe him ",
. But this sacrifice was in vain. Hostile influence had so hurt him in the ruling circles, . all, . what he could achieve, . had permission to print some excerpts from the play in the almanac Buе┌haryn "Russian Waist" at 1825, . while stage performance was absolutely forbidden, . being ruthlessly ban was extended to cell quarters performance theater school students (including the famous P later,
. Karatygina), who wanted at least somewhere to enable the author to see his work in the faces. Attacking the old-fashioned criticism, . is often an expression of angry secular accounts; murmur affected comedy or even advocated the propriety and morality, . if it offended; hostility of the authorities, . not let the will nor the printed, . neither the text of the comedy stage and thereby causing its unparalleled spread in tens of thousands of lists, and finally, . immediate impressions of reaction, . befalls on him, . and all, . that he had been dearly, . - All this is a strong effect on Griboyedov,
. The hilarity of it was lost forever; periods of dark depression more often visited him and close earlier, he made friends with the best people in society and literature and, apparently, was devoted to many of their plans and intentions. If at that time he had written several poems (mainly from nature and life of the Caucasus), . and even with Prince Viazemsky - small afterpiece: "Who's brother, . who is the sister "(an adventure at the station, . dressing with a young girl in an officer's uniform as the main effect), . these minor, . which only occasionally flash of an amazing talent of the author, . as if written only, . something to fill the emotional distress and anguish to disperse,
. When had to return to Georgia, . Griboyedov chose another detour, . visited Kiev and the Crimea, . the travel notes left alive trace their curiosity and erudition on the history and archeology, . and artistic relationship to nature, . already approaching the goal of his journey and arrived with Ermolov, . when he heard about the events of December 14, . which were attended by so many people close to him, . whose ideas he sympathized with, . doubt only the timeliness of the coup,
. Soon sent a messenger, with orders to immediately take him to a Commission. Ermolov had time to warn Griboyedov, and all the incriminating papers were destroyed. Again, having made way to the north, waiting to meet his fate, Griboedov found even among the investigators and the serf people highly valued the superiors of his talent and ready to shield and save it. On the advice of one of them, he replies to questionnaires items replaced the original statement of his beliefs ignorance. In June, 1826. He was released and had to again return to their service, in no way adversely affected by the suspicion and arrest. But coming back a different person. Only closer knew Griboedova guess, . what was going on under the restrained, . Business looks, . he has now mastered himself, and only they knew, . how sad he languished, . as sorry about his unfortunate comrades, . as an orphan without them, but they, . look on his cold face ", . seen it "traces of past passions" and recalled (as was done Baratynskij a beautiful poem to the portrait Griboedova), . as freezes that sometimes raged above waterfall, . preserving and icy in his state "motion type",
. Literary work, apparently, stopped for Griboedova forever. Creativity could illuminate his depressed mood, he was looking for new inspiration, but with despair convinced that these expectations are in vain. "I do not know, not too much I demand from myself, - he wrote from Simferopol - I know how pisatN right for me still a mystery. What I have in abundance there is to say, I can vouch for that, why should I nemN "Life seemed to him endlessly exhausting and colorless," I do not know why it lasts so long, "- he exclaimed. To give it any useful work, with great zeal, he took up business responsibilities. With the new commander in chief, Mausoleum, married his cousin, could further rely on the practical application of projects, from nascent Griboedova. He never reconciled with the "drum education, which we induct the Caucasus, and waited for the time when the Russian rule will bring the edge of the culture and the free development of the popular forces. The interested more in the university social sciences, he now has made their methods to the study of local life, legal customs, trade relations, the national economy in the broadest sense. His various "notes" of this kind were curious proof of his rare ability to practice; to always lay the basis of their desire to combine the benefits of the state with the largest possible space for the life of nations, . whose secular traditions clashed with the official Russian systems,
. Griboyedov reluctantly returned to the Caucasus and seriously thinking about retirement, . perhaps, . and the long trip abroad, only reinforced the mother's request, and in particular its artfully staged scene in the chapel of the Iberian Mother of God, . where before the icon Nastassja Feodorovna with her son took an oath to fulfill a, . what she asked, . forced him to continue service,
. But once this was done, and the daily work began, he felt a debt of honor puts into it all his skill and knowledge. It was necessary to take part in military endeavors, . accompanying troops during expeditions in the mountains, . or, . When the Russian-Persian War 1827 - 28 years., . being present in all cases, . skirmishes and battles, fearless, . taught the nerves to the whistling of bullets and cores, . it is performed the same feat of self-denial and, . indignation against institutionalized wars of annihilation, . willpower restrained protest, . escaping from the chest,
. After the campaign he was again, on a thin knowledge of people and order in Persia, was unusually helpful during the negotiations for peace. When, . routed under the Nakhichevan, . Abbas Mirza requested a cessation of hostilities, . Griboyedov was sent to the Persian camp, and after many efforts made profitable for Russia Turkmanchai contract, . brought her and a significant area, . and a great tribute,
. These concessions were made by the Persians against their will, by necessity, through the ornate courtesy in the eastern style too clearly see the hatred and impatient desire of revenge and take back all the assigned. Griboyedov rightly proud of his success, did not conceal his fear of the retaliation and, perhaps, an early resumption of the war. But the real moment of all was the same for him much; Paskevich could not choose better messenger of peace. In February 1828, Mr.. Griboyedov goes back to the north with reports and the text of the treatise. In the final period of life Griboedov, crowded affairs and considerations of administrative or diplomatic nature, it seemed, was left even a modest room for creativity. But at this time (the exact date can not be determined) at last visited his inspiration. He could no longer return to the path of comedy, and a new plan it inspired in the Caucasus impressions, should have taken the form of tragedy in the Shakespearean style, or, as they said, "a romantic tragedy". He called it "Georgia Night" and, as it seems, has ended its full, but remained only two scenes, but a cursory outline of the contents. The plot was taken from the Georgian life. Samoupravets and serf-old prince in a moment of caprice sold the son of a neighbor nurse, a faithful servant of the house. At her plea to return the boy he responds angrily, and banishes her. She curses him, is a mountain gorge, causing the evil spirits Ali. They "floating in the mist at the foot of the mountains," act "in pairs round dance of the evening, before the rise of the sad, the virgin moon". How Makbetovskie witches, . They exchange messages about the evils, . is about to commit, a nurse requires their assistance, when a young Russian, . in love with the princess, . carries it with him and his father chasing him, . Spirits are bullet, . aimed at kidnappers, . right in the heart of the daughter, . father becomes a killer favorite brainchild, injustice and arbitrariness brutally avenged,
. Hard to say, . as truth in the rave reviews friends Griboedova, . claimed, . though in "Woe from Wit" he only "tried his pen", . whereas in Georgia the night "quite expressed his talent; extant fragments still highly interesting as an expression of turn in his artistic taste, . found in the new direction of his great beauty,
. In the excited dialogue between the two diehard enemies, the prince and the nanny, there is a real theatrical life, the appearance of ghosts and the scene surrounded by a spell of poetic mystery. If we compare these techniques Griboedova the last of his works with his previous attempts to write, . more or less elevated style, . power (eg, . many poems, . especially with the philosophical tinge) to the rampant use of Slavonicisms or piling up of metaphors, . become apparent progress, . Griboyedov made in this area,
. The end of the war, a trip to St. Petersburg and the new work, which opened after the fact to our writer, intercepted his recent outbursts of creativity. I had to put on the stage of life unprecedented tragicomedy with a bloody denouement. No one was found among diplomats, . who would be able to, . appearing in the vanquished Persia, . immediately after its defeat, . set with tact, . knowledge of people and living conditions, . correct relationship of both countries, . except Griboedova, . enjoyed a reputation as a specialist in Persian affairs and the creator just concluded a treaty,
. Despite its stated decisively previous reluctance to go to Persia, . where, . he had the right to expect, . him most hated as the main culprit of the humiliation of national honor, . was impossible to refuse because categorically declared wishes of the Emperor,
. Griboyedov sad farewell to all who knew him, feeling eternal separation. The consolidation of Russian influence in Persia, . the imminent now as the main task of his work, . no longer interested him at all, and he too looked carefully to the Eastern way of life and way of thinking, . to find a keen interest in the opportunities opened to him a long plaguing one of the centers of stagnation, . arbitrariness and bigotry,
. He was aware that many have worked in this field, and the most welcome holiday again seemed to him the trip was not in the East and the West (and the rest of his life for him, as for Pushkin, unenforceable dream). But the duty instilled steadfastly implement the commitment by the difficult business, and the new minister plenipotentiary repeatedly weighed and considered, during the journey from St. Petersburg, a policy which he must follow. Ray happiness lit up suddenly weary soul Griboedova at the time of life when it seemed that all the joy of his left. The daughter of his old friend, . Princess Nina Chavchavadze, . he knew a little girl, . captivated by his charm of blossoming flower; suddenly, . almost at the family dinner, . he proposed to her and, . despite muchivshuyu his fever, . keep pace and during the marriage ceremony, . he, . perhaps, . first tested in full force happy love, . experiencing, . he said, . a novel, . which leaves far behind the most famous for their whimsical tale fantasy novelists,
. When he recovered enough that he could sail, he drove his wife to Tabriz and went without her to Tehran to prepare it all for her arrival. Tenderness, . which he was surrounded by his little "murilevskuyu shepherdess" (as he called the Nina, she just went to the sixteenth year), . says his letter to her, . one of the last (of Kazbina, . December 24, 1828), . full caress, . love and prayers to God, . that they will never more be parted,
. On his arrival in Tehran, he immediately began to apply to the case that a program of action, . which currently purposed, he wanted to impress aloft the dignity of the Russian name, . violated the etiquette of the royal court, . showing himself shah probably less respect, . taking under his wing then superintendent of the harem, . then its occupants, . if they were among the Russian citizens and sought the protection of the Russian ambassador, . - Persistently demanding payment of indemnities and never giving anything stubbornness Persians,
. All this was done in spite of individual preferences, from a solid consciousness responsibilities; but overpowering themselves Griboedov too far. Excited by third-party whispering, . He sometimes acted provocatively, these errors enjoyed British diplomats, . to foment hatred of the Ambassador in court circles, suspicion, . at the same time have arisen in this regard, . largely documented, . promulgated recent,
. But the hatred is rising ominously in the masses, and her aroused and maintained Clergymen, . on market days fanatically advocating revenge and beating Russian, hardly anyone from hostile Griboyedov foreign diplomats in their plot could consciously rely on the wild because of the ignorant crowd, . din into which, . that Russian should destroy as enemies of popular religion,
. Instigator of the uprising was Tehran mudzhshehid (senior cleric) Mesikhi, . his main collaborators - or ulema, like lords Alayar Khan, . are always the enemy Griboedova, . were also devoted to the conspiracy, . who had to scare the Russian, . cause them some damage, . but not cause carnage,
. When (if indicated themselves Persian dignitaries) to the people gathered in a fateful day some 100 thousand people, and mass fanatizovannaya sermon, rushed to the house of the Embassy, the leaders of the conspiracy had lost power over him, and elemental force zabushevala. Griboyedov understood, . What risk are, . and the day before his death, he sent a threatening note to the palace, . declaring it, . that the inability of the Persian authorities to safeguard the honor and the very life of the representatives of Russia, he asked his government to recall him from Tehran,
. But it was too late. January 30, 1829, Mr.. was almost across-the-beaten Russian (saved only Counselor of the Embassy Maltsev), and in particular the brutal murder of Griboyedov, whose body was found in a pile of corpses mutilated and disfigured. With invariable his fearlessness Griboedov hurried down to the front door, which tried to protect the Cossacks defended his sword, was recognized and placed on the ground. Long diplomatic excuses, . protestations of innocence and despair demonstrative, . Finally, . by sending Hosreva-Mirza in St. Petersburg with an apology, . succeeded to the Persian government to settle again to do with Russia, it is realized more easily, . what, . occupied by the Turkish war, . Russia could not wish for the resumption of hostilities against another country,
. Gradually reigned peace and harmony, as if nothing had disturbed their. Not only was a great man ... Griboyedov buried in Tbilisi at the monastery of St. David's, excellent location which he always admired, expressing the desire to find a grave here. His wife survived him nearly thirty years.
There are writers, the whole spiritual life which all of the best minds and creative talent is reflected in a single work, which is precisely the result of their existence. Among them is one of the first places is Griboedov. Posterity has forgotten his poems and small pieces, . the "Georgia Night" too little knowledge, . diplomatic work and academic dilettantism Griboedova values in the world, . but never cease to wonder nobility plan, . courage and the incomparable comic satire "Woe from Wit",
. In this comedy, and correspondence - unfortunately, . still little known, . whereas there was a brighter and sincerely supports the moral personality of the writer, . - Visible at every step one of the most gifted Russian people, . genuinely fond of his fatherland, . with sympathy for his old identity and who knew how to combine sympathy progress and hostility to those, . who "would forever hold our nation in a state of infancy",
. Happy literature, which could go off so hot and manly protest against the evil. The strength of his influence has survived for half a century, . although "Griboedov Moscow has committed an anachronism, it is based on the ever-truthful, . always understood by the intercession of dear people and ideals do not depend on temporary living conditions, . however witty they may be ridiculed, and it does not depend on tire disputes about partisanship Griboedova, . who himself had regained his independent position in literature and society, . - Because truly great in creative freedom rises above the squabbles and trivia of the day,
. For modern, . fallen spirit of literature has been an invaluable boon to the determination of the writer "with soul" to make a new transcription of eternal theme of "Woe from Wit", . equally passionate and sincere, . although it turned to a new society and to evil in a new way for people,
. This wish is, it seems the highest praise that a descendant may pay Griboyedov. - For the history of the text, "Woe from Wit" valuable publication Muzeyskogo list, published in. Yakushkin, and Zhandrovskoy manuscript, H. Piskanovym, 1912. Variants of the original edition first published in the publication Stasyulevich, "Russian Library", edited by A. Veselovsky. Griboyedov collected works were published since 1858 (publication Evgrafovna. Serchevskogo) by the end of 1880, the most complete collection was published under the editorship and. Shlyapkin, in 2 volumes, enclosing within it all the then known correspondence Griboyedov and currently final, apparently, is a collection of works undertaken by Grade. Belles Lettres Academy of Sciences under the editorship of H. Piskanova (1 st t., 1911). All the literature on Griboedov to 1889. inclusive - in the Supplement to Shlyapkin index; supplement thereto issued Piksanovym (Yur'ev, 1903). From the biographical literature: AN article. Pypin (Journal Europe, . 1890, . I), . Biographical Sketch Griboyedov in the "Russian Library", . Alexei Veselovskogo; his own, . "Essay on the early history of" Woe from Wit "(" Russian Archives ", . 1874, . VI) and "Alceste and Chatsky" ( "Etudes and Specifications, . 1912), . biography in 1 volume Collected Works, . edition Piksanova; biographical material, . collected D,
. Smirnov, "Russian Word", 1859, IV - V; "Conversations in the community of literature lovers of Russia", 1868, II; "Historical Journal, 1909; P. Shchegolev Griboedov and the Decembrists ", 1905. Best parse "Woe from Wit" is a paper Belinsky and especially Goncharova ( "zillion torment", "Collected Works Goncharova, ton. VII). Alex Veselovskiy.

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  • Sibiryak for GRIBOEDOV Alexander
  • In 2003, in Novosibirsk, published an interesting book M. A. Rusanov A. S. Griboyedoff and Sufis ". Here is perhaps the first time in domestic griboedovedenii raised questions about the EAST (Sufi) influence in the work of the author of the immortal comedy "Woe from Wit". I wanted to this edition, published edition of only 200 copies got into the field of view of scholars of A. S. Griboedov and normal readers. Report on the book with some reviews were published in the Literary Gazette, and placed in the catalog of literature on Sufi themes. Order the book can at rsnv@ngs.ru
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