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Yakov Karlovich Grot

( Academy)

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Biography Yakov Karlovich Grot
photo Yakov Karlovich Grot
born December 15, 1812, Mr.. (about his ancestors cm. above, Joachim Grote), died May 24, 1893, Mr.. He studied at the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum, in 1832. first completed the course and joined the Office of the Committee of Ministers, consisting in direct control of Baron MA. Korff. When the last, in 1835, was appointed secretary of state, he transferred the Grotto in his office. In 1837, Mr.. Groth, . who wrote back in high school, . Byron graduated from the translation of "Mazeppa" and placed him in "Contemporary"; there he began to publish articles on the history and literature of the Scandinavian North, . which, . through knowledge of Swedish language, . was known to him in perfection,
. Translation of verses of the poem Tegnц?r "Fritiof (Helsingfors, . 1841; 2-ed., . Voronezh, . 1874), . provided with explanations of antiquities and mythology of the Scandinavian nations, . still in manuscript attracted the attention of Zhukovsky, . presented the interpreter to the State Secretary of the Grand Duke of Finland, . Rebinder,
. In 1840, Mr.. Groth was appointed professor of the newly established at Helsingfors University Department of Russian Language and Literature, . with the lecture was supposed to read in Swedish, he was also instructed to follow the teaching of Russian language in schools in Finland,
. In Finland, Groth published (in Swedish), a number of books for the Finnish youth: "The Textbook of the Russian language" (2 nd ed., 1849), "The book to read," "History of Russia before Peter the Great" (2 nd ed., 1850 - 51) and others. In a number of articles: "Understanding Runeberg" ( "Contemporary", . 1839), . "Poetry and mythology of the Scandinavians" (Fatherland Notes, . 1839), . "The nature of the Finnish" ( "Contemporary", . 1840), . "Helsingfors" (1840, . ibid), . "The Finns and their folk poetry" (ibid.), etc., . Groth acquainted with the literature of Russian society, . nature and history of Sweden and Finland,
. In 1846 and 1847 respectively under the supervision of the Grotto print detailed Swedish-Russian dictionary, then he, . accompanied by a famous collector of Finnish epic Lenrota, . traveled from Lake Ladoga to the river Tornio, . is described in the book: "Moving to Finland" (1847),
. In 1847, Mr.. Groth visited Sweden and Uppsala University and tied there the relations with scholars and writers (see. his letter to the St. Petersburg Gazette "for 1848. with 77 N, "Northern Review" and "Moskovityanin", 1849, and "Fatherland Notes, 1850). In 1849, Mr.. Groth met with the famous Orientalist Kosovichev, under whose leadership was engaged in Greek and Sanskrit. In the early 50-ies articles appear Grotto "On some peculiarities in the sounds of the Russian language" ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", . 1852, . N 6), "Regional Great-word, . akin to the Scandinavian "(" Proceedings of the II Division of the Academy of Sciences ", . 1852), "Regional Great Russian words of Finnish origin" (ibid.), "Comments on the experience of the regional Great Dictionary" (ibid.), and many other articles, . then included in a comprehensive treatise: "Philology rozyskaniya,
. Materials for a dictionary, grammar and history of the Russian Language "(St. Petersburg, 1873), soon processed and appeared in 1876, Mr.. second edition (the second volume of this work: "Controversial issues Russian spelling of Peter the Great to this day" was released separately, completely revised). In 1852, Mr.. Alexander Lyceum offered Grote Chair of Literature, . he served 10 years at the same time he was appointed to teach the Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich, and his brother, . future Emperor Alexander III, Russian and German, . history and geography,
. Three years later, Groth was elected an associate of the Academy of Sciences Department of the Russian language and literature, which in 1858. consisted ordinary academician in 1884. - Chairman. Since 1889, Mr.. Groth was vice-president of the Academy of Sciences. With 60-s the name of the Grotto is closely connected with the study of a number of writers and figures of the past and present century: Lomonosov Moscow State University ( "Letters to the Lomonosov and Sumarokova I.I. Shuvalov, "in" Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, "1862;" Essay on the academic activities of University ", ibid, 1865), Derzhavin (ed. it works in 9 volumes, with an extensive biography, 1864 - 83), Hemnitsera ( "Works and letters Hemnitsera on his original manuscripts, with biographical articles and notes", St. Petersburg, 1873), Karamzin, Dmitrieva (Letters NM. Karamzin to I.I. Dmitriev, St Petersburg, 1866, Vol. Groth and Pekarsky), Pushkin (Pushkin and his comrades and mentors Lyceum, St Petersburg, 1887, 2 nd ed. St. Petersburg, 1899), Krylov ( "Literary Life Krylov," "Satyr Krylova and Mail of Spirits", "A Note on Krylov's fable" and pr. - In the "Compendium Branch of the Russian language and literature" for 1869 and others. years), Pletnev ( "Works and Correspondence P.A. Pletnev, 1884), Zhukovsky ( "Essay on the life and poetry of Zhukovsky" - in "Collection Branch of the Russian language and literature, 1883, etc.), as the Empress Catherine II and writer. Many materials for the internal history of the reign of the empress scattered in the notes to the edition. op. Derzhavina, as well as in numerous articles and publications of the Grotto: "Materials for the history of the Pugachev Rebellion. Correspondence of the Empress Catherine II to Count PI. Panin (St. Petersburg, . 1863), "Education of Catherine II" ( "Old and New Russia", . 1875), . "Catherine II and Gustav III" (ibid., . 1876, . "Russian Antiquities", . 1877, . then in the Collection Branch of the Russian language and literature ", . 1878), . "Philological classes of Catherine II" ( "Russian Archives", . 1877), . Caring for Catherine II of Public Education "(J. Branch of Russian language and literature", . 1880), . "Lettres de Catherine II a Grimm 1774 - 96" (St. Petersburg, . 1878), . "Catherine II in correspondence with Baron Grimm" ( "Collected Branch of the Russian language and literature", . 1880 - 81), . Letters to the Grimm Catherine II "(" Collection of Historical Society, . t,
. XXXIII, 1881). In 1885, Mr.. was published "The Russian spelling" (20-ed. St. Petersburg, 1912). Since 1891, Mr.. under the chief editorship of the Grotto out "Dictionary of Russian Language", ed. Dept. II. Academy of Sciences. After his death, Ed. K.YA. Grotto on specially appropriated funds published 5 volumes of "Proceedings of YA.K. Grotto (St. Petersburg, 1898 - 1903). In 1896, Mr.. out "Correspondence YA.K. Grotto with P.A. Pletnev (3 tons). Wed. "Note on the Institutional I. Grote, "compiled by P.A. Pletnev (St. Petersburg, 1856) and "A bibliographic list of works, translations and publications I. Grotto (St. Petersburg, 1883); "YA.K. Groth. Some data for his biography "(St. Petersburg, 1895); Vengerov" Sources ", t. II; K.YA. Grotto "Materials for the biography of academician YA.K. Grotto (St. Petersburg, 1912, 2 ed.). Among the many valuable works, and always the Grotto on the history of Russian literature and language of the most prominent place is occupied by the monumental edition of the works Derzhavin and "Russian spelling". Publication Derzhavina created a special "Grotowski" type editions of the classics, differing not only a careful setting of the text, but also the wealth of historical and literary commentary. "Notes" Grotto to Derzhavin and volume, and the abundance of information are complete overview of the intellectual and political life of the era of the detailed design of many literary questions. Biography Derzhavina component of an enormous volume of 1000 pages, developed with the same historical and bibliographical and luxury on the basis of new archival material. The attitude of the biographer to Derzhavin is not without bias. This does not make it, however, literary Old Faith, as in the development of Derzhavin era, and in other studies, Grotto is a writer, in which "academic quality" was not settled hostility toward the progressive tendencies of Russian Literature. By no means unanimous recognition of the desire of the Grotto was met initially to establish the Russian spelling. Some of his innovations prompted protests, many resolutely refuse to write "stepmother", "tow," "weed," "vyadchina", "doctor", "arrogance," "George", "blind" and t. d. Every year, however, the protests calms down, little by little, compulsory up spelling "according to Grote,. Spelling, again it can not be completely phonetic, - something quite conventional, and therefore attempt to put an end to the Grotto spelling anarchy we will certainly be of great importance. S. Vengerov.

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