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Dragomanov Mikhail Petrovich

( historian, folklorist and writer)

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Biography Dragomanov Mikhail Petrovich
photo Dragomanov Mikhail Petrovich
(1841 - 1895). Born in g. Gadyach, Poltava province, in the landed gentry family to graduate from the Ukrainian Cossack. He graduated from the course at the University of Kiev, . where he joined the circle of students, . founding Sunday schools, . free and taught history in school, . preparatory to teachers for rural schools, . discover that it was decided to counteract the Polish forms of propaganda, . while the teacher-students were not removed from there by order of the Ministry of Education,
. Great influence on the political education of Dragomanova had Polish movement. Born in the left-bank Ukraine, Dragomanov was not until after graduation "visual concept" of the Poles: sympathize with them as victims of despotism, he, however, as a Ukrainian, was full of historical memories of the oppression of Ukraine by Poland. Socio-political aspirations of Ukrainians were then varied and unclear. Dragomanova Ukrainian nationalist sentiments circles, their contempt for Russian literature and culture in general seemed reactionary, particularly infuriated him of their willingness to go hand in hand in the fight against the government with the Poles. On the other hand, the unconditional compassion of some circles to the Poles Dragomanova intimate with the Ukrainians, who gave a sharp rebuff to the Polish claim to the western Ukraine. Even more alike in Dragomanova with Ukrainians teaching interests: he even joined the Ukrainian organization - Hromada, learning that it requires to proceed to the publication of popular books. At the end of the course Dragomanov was defined geography teacher in the 2 Kiev Gymnasium. In 1864, Mr.. thesis pro venia legendi "Emperor Tiberius, and from 1865. Department asked him to read a mandatory course on general history on the Rights of the staffing associate. Cooperating in Petersburg Gazette (VF editor. Korsch), Dragomanov often wrote about the political situation in the south-western edge. Since the Slav Congress in Moscow (1867) he began to write articles on Slavic question, which dealt Russo-Polish and Slavic in general in terms of a democratic-federal. At this time it was introduced in the left-bank Ukraine, district council, and Zemstvo (mainly, Chernigov) drew attention to the need to use the Ukrainian language in local schools. It was the first convergence Dragomanova as a journalist, with public figures: discussion of regular tasks of the Russian political life, it soon became the center of journalistic activity Dragomanova. In the articles "Zemstvo and local element in the training," "On the pedagogical significance of Little Russian language" and others. Dragomanov sold with the views of the then trustee of the school district of Kiev, Prince Shirinsky-Shikhmatov, the enemy is not only popular, but the secular element in the initial training. Dragomanov, on the basis of teaching experience, was the need to start training with the Ukrainian folk literature, and only gradually move to the Russian literary and popular language to Great. At Dragomanov attacked Moscow Gazette, and Prince Shirinsky-Shikhmatov sent to the Ministry of Education a report that Dragomanov - "separatist". When, after the defense in 1869. Master's thesis ( "The question of the historical significance of the Roman Empire and Tacitus), Dragomanov was elected full-time lecturer, his assertion is in that position was postponed until his return from trip abroad. According Drahomanova dispatch Shirinsky-Shikhmatov finally pinned him to the Ukrainian direction. From the universal lessons and Roman history Dragomanova research interests gradually shifted into the region studies Ukrainian and Slavic folk. In this area are his main scientific achievements. Ethnography and history of oral folk literature, he being regarded as the science of the totality of the spiritual life of peoples (folklore). Investigations on the stray legends and tales, he revealed that in the creations of individual nations recognized by the original and as such are important for understanding the "people's souls," many elements of international. Works on folklore Dragomanova gave him not only the material for the scientific findings in this area: they fed him the socio-political mood. In its outlook cosmopolitanism or internationalism, recognizing the product of universal culture of creativity, did not deny the private national variations of common ideas and forms. Study of Ukrainian folk literature, . especially political songs, . Dragomanova led to conclusions, . important for practical politics: the Ukrainians, . according Dragomanova, . should play an important role in the formulation of a broad federal-democratic issue in the whole of Eastern Europe,
. Dragomanov stayed abroad for three years (1870 - 1873). He wrote at that time a number of journalistic work, . develop the ideas of political federalism and democracy; closely acquainted with the life of Galicia; participates in Galician publications; it later served as an external reason for removing him from the University of Kiev,
. In 1875, Mr.. followed by a series of denunciations of Dragomanova, and he was dismissed by the Ministry of the third paragraph. Shortly thereafter, he went abroad to conduct propaganda in the Russian press abroad and to establish their freedom Ukrainian printing. Since the first overseas edition Dragomanova in Austria were confiscated, he settled in Geneva, where he lived until the fall of 1889, when invited by a professor of World History at Sofia University. In Sofia Dragomanov and died June 8, 1895. Value Dragomanova as a journalist, based primarily on the second, foreign period of its activities, although all of its guiding thought, because it allowed Russian censorship, were formulated before his emigration. Tradition of struggle for political freedom than ever, . since Decembrist, . not disappear in the Russian progressive society, . but Dragomanov, . as the first serial constitutionalist was the first realist-politician in the Russian emigration in the Russian political journalism,
. In 1876, Mr.. followed by a decree, almost forbidding Ukrainian literature. For Dragomanova decree that was not only the collapse of his dear Ukrainian aspirations, but also evidence of increasing political oppression for all of Russia. It's in his eyes, gave prominence to the need for personal and social freedom for the whole Russian people. And Dragomanov not only formulated the task: he thought, and on issues where there are forces to solve it, what means are suitable and acceptable in the struggle for liberation. "Sure thing, requires clean hands", - said Dragomanov political pamphlet written by him about the Crimean War and this motto has remained true until the end of his days. Formulation of practical policy objectives under the control of high moral precepts distinguishes Dragomanova as a publicist. Hence his rejection of terror as a means of political struggle. Convinced positivist and rationalist to his philosophical views, Dragomanov was an idealist in politics. The material force in matters of domestic policy - not all or even most important. That was why the main part of obtaining political freedom was reduced to Dragomanova to assimilate "all educated people of different tribes of the population of Russia" launched, . underlying Russian Zemsky motion and requiring the integrity of the fundamental rights of individuals and local, . promote self-management state (Zemsky Liberalism in Russia "),
. Zemstvo, in the eyes of Drahomanova is a means of organization freedom: the inviolability of the rights of local self-government put them next to the inviolability of the rights of individuals. In the constitutional draft, . elaborated Dragomanov ( "voluntary association"), . introduced the definition of competence of local self-government, . significantly enhanced the development of larger and, . hence, . more influential, . than the provincial district council, . Units - Regional zemstvos,
. In the decentralization and regional autonomy Dragomanov saw the best way to solve the national question in Russia, including close to him question Ukrainian. Among the European socialists Dragomanov mostly borrowed from Proudhon, but remained a statesman, a protest against contemporary forms of centralized state, he still recognizes the need for transitional forms of state. Federalism Dragomanova flowed logically from consistent democracy. The national question was solved them by the formula: "cosmopolitanism to nationalism in the forms and methods". Ukrainian question Dragomanov devoted two series: "Chudatski Daisy about я┐п╨я─п╟iп╫я│я▄п╨я┐ natsionalnu right" and "list on naddnipryansku Ukraina", published in separate books (of which only the first and only in 1913. published in Russia, in a slightly abridged edition). Ukrainian movement are considered historically and critically, . nationalist and chauvinist elements of his convicted, . as reactionary, . but the very essence of the nation, . as a certain form of solidarity between people, . has recognized the enormous social and cultural value,
. On the issue of autonomy of the Ukrainian culture views Dragomanova experienced some change around 1876 g. First he was close to the recognition of the formula: "literature for the household," although it raised the issue in a broader perspective. Later, he acknowledged the need for a comprehensive national cultural creativity, . arguing, . "Everyone, . departed from Ukraine, . every penny, . spent not on the Ukrainian business, . every word, . spoken than Ukrainian, . a flow rate of peasant Ukrainian treasury, . waste, . which under present conditions would not return it anywhere ",
. Summing up its activities, . in response to the anniversary greetings, . Dragomanov wrote, . that the main task of his life he felt the desire to implement in practical politics the guiding ideas, . that in 40 years came to the glorious St. Cyril and Methodius brothers and that paved the way for the people Dragomanova Ukrainian and his friends in their younger years,
. Dragomanovskaya asking questions of nationalism and cosmopolitanism are often met with complete lack of understanding in various national and social groups, . and criticism, . which he, . from their point of view, . subjected the program and presentations by various groups, . circles and parties, . often led to resentment of those, . to whom it was directed edge,
. Discontent is a source of contradictory and often absurd accusations. Ukrainian nationalists accused him of cosmopolitanism, . moskvofilstve and obrusitelstve; Russian radicals and revolutionaries, . resentful of their criticism of centralism ( "History of Poland and The Great Democracy"), . saw him as Ukrainian chauvinist, . a Polish magazine even called "Moscow agent",
. Having all the Russias, zemstvo constitutional movement is represented by its Dragomanova ideologue. Since late 1882, Mr.. he became editor of "free word" declared authority "of the Land of the Union" (publication ceased in May 1883. as a result of the triumph of reaction in Russia). V. Bogucharsky ( "From the history of political struggle in the 70's and 80's of the XIX century.") Argues that Dragomanov was wound up in dense forest "clever hoax Count PP. Shuvalov, fabrication of which was itself "Zemsky Union". The controversy caused by this statement (mostly - Book BA. Kistyakovsky Pages of the Past "), established his unfounded. "Free word", . under the editorship of Dragomanova played the role of conductor of the constitutional aspirations, and in this capacity to recognize "their" constitutionalists in Russia, . whether, . existed or not, "Zemsky Union", . as an organization Zemstvo-constitutionalist,
. Dragomanov had a great influence in the fight Galician parties. Without exaggeration we can say that the Europeanization of Galicia began with Dragomanova. In his first visit to Galicia Dragomanov found that Galicians, despite its more westerly position, behind a more ideologically from Europe than the Russians. We Drahomanova matured a plan to distribute in Galicia, the Ukrainian direction by the new Russian literature, its democratic and secular nature of it, in the calculation Drahomanova was to undermine in Galicia clericalism and bureaucracy. In an effort to raise the Ukrainian national life in Russia and Austria to the level of Europe, . Europe Dragomanov acquainted with the situation the Ukrainian question, . with the development of Ukrainian literature, . with the persecution of the Ukrainian culture, . Why has spoken with articles in German, . French, . Italian and British press,
. Dragomanov issued by his own comments two volumes of correspondence Herzen and Turgenev Ogarev, Kavelin and Bakunin, giving highly valuable material for the study of Russian public. "Collection of political writings" Dragomanov published in Paris in 1905 - 1906 years of editorship of "liberation". In Russia, released in 1908. t. I "political works" Dragomanova - a collection of articles under the title "Center and the outskirts, with the application of Article B. Kistyakovsky devoted to the characteristics of political views, literary activities and biographies Dragomanova. In Lviv Dragomanova article published in the Ukrainian language of folklore and Ukrainian literature: "Rozvidki M. Dragomanova about Ukrainska People slovesnist and pismenstvo ". In 1876, Mr.. Kiev Dragomanov produced a very important book: "Little-Russian folk legends and stories", in 1874 - 1875 years in collaboration with Professor V.B. Antonovich issued a "Historic Little Russian songs of the people", all the critical comments are owned Dragomanova. Continuation of this work was published in Geneva in 2 editions: Novi Ukrainska pisni at Gromadska right "(1764 - 1880) in 1881. and politic pisni ukr. people XVIII and XIX centuries ", Part I, in 1883, Mr.. About Dragomanova there is now a whole literature of books, magazine and newspaper articles. Chief among them: M. Pavlik, "Stamp. Dragomanov, 1841 - 1895 g. His birthday, death, autobiography and Spys creates "(Lviv, 1896), and. Franco "Zhitepis Dragomanova, corn and the word" (1894, Book I); his "Suspilno politic-look M. Dragomanova "(" Literature and Science. Vistnik, 1906, Book 8), M. Pavlik M. Dragomanov and Rola in rozvoyu of Ukraine "(Lviv, 1907); C. Efremov History carriers of Ukrainian pismenstva (St. Petersburg, 1911). For biographies and characteristics of attitudes and activities Dragomanova extremely important correspondence Dragomanova Halych with different actors and writers, published by M. Pavlik, AND. Franco and others, as well as "Austro-Ruska spomini M. Dragomanova (Lviv, 1889 - 1892); his own, "elementary school in the Ukraine" (Geneva, 1877); his own, "Two teachers - KI. Polevich and AI. Stronin "(Lviv, 1902). Autobiography Dragomanova published in the journal Past "(June 1906). A number of ethnographic works Dragomnova placed in the Bulgarian "Collection for the people umotvoreniya and knizhnina". Dragomanov participated in the drafting volume geography Reclus, on Ukraine. Interesting letter to Dragomanova MM. Stassiulevitch, the journal of which - "News of Europe" - Dragomanov placed in 70-ies some wonderful articles included in the fifth volume of "Archives of MM. Stasyulevich (St. Petersburg, 1913). M. Mogilyansky.

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Dragomanov Mikhail Petrovich, photo, biography
Dragomanov Mikhail Petrovich, photo, biography Dragomanov Mikhail Petrovich  historian, folklorist and writer, photo, biography
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