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Dril Dmitri A.

( famous criminologist)

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Biography Dril Dmitri A.
photo Dril Dmitri A.
(1846 - 1910). Place of the old names malorossiyskoy. He graduated from the course at Moscow University, where he attended lectures on legal and medical faculties and was preparing to engage in the department of criminal law. The negative attitude of the Ministry of Count DA. Tolstoy, it forced him to temporarily take Zemstvo statistics, changed to the Ministry of Saburova trip abroad, which resulted in his master's thesis was "Juvenile offenders'. Novelty and broad autonomy Dril views on the conditions and causes of childhood and adolescence crime provoked a skeptical attitude towards this thesis, the law faculty of Moscow University, . dismissing it under the pretext of its medical content,
. In the same book, after a brilliant dispute, Dril received in 1881. master's degree from Kharkov University. Dril not have, . however, . take the chair in state universities, . and only at the end of his life he was able to become a teacher of criminal law in St. Petersburg Polytechnic, . private higher commercial rates and at the Faculty of neuropsychiatric institute, . Dean which Dril was elected shortly before his death,
. Attracted by the original formulation of agency tax inspector, which offered an opportunity not to leave the cabinet proceedings, Dril half of the eighties took such a position in Moscow, and in 1892. moved to St. Petersburg as a senior tax inspector for audit visits and participation in various committees to discuss issues of fisheries taxation. Futility of his work on this part, . in the sense of the introduction of life began to income tax, . led him to move to the Ministry of Justice for the post of deputy for special assignments V Class, . state in which, . He was repeatedly sent to various international congresses on crime policy and public charity, . and also traveled to New Caledonia, . Sakhalin and Siberia in order to get familiarized with the organization of links and hard prison,
. During this time, they printed a full report on issues of interest to labor assistance and child protection, . discussed at the Paris Congress in 1900, . and article: "Attempts to improving society and rescue the perishing", . "Measures for the improvement of society", . "Vagrancy and begging, and their control", . and presented an alien official record of hypocrisy, . then entered in his book "Link to France and Russia" (1899),
. In this report, he pointed to those inner sores, . which lie under the external landscaping of the French reference to New Caledonia and Guiana, and there are punitive institutions, . and gave a picture of a heavy, . that are economically, . colonization, . Correctional and moral relations of Sakhalin as a place of exile and Siberian convict prisons,
. He is not silent, . like some of his official predecessors, . distribution of referring to Sakhalin women in unmarried settlers "for joint domoobzavodstva", . many of the settlers are forced to such partner and begotten of their daughters into prostitution,
. "Not seen close and does not know Sakhalin life is hard to imagine, . he sees, , . - Says Dril, . - And from which contaminated materials are gradually composed his life if inventing spiritual poison, . something worse and stronger impossible to think! "Further work Dril went primarily to institutions for juvenile delinquents, . which in the form of penal colonies and orphanages, . one hand, . were provided to private and public initiative, . without the support and participation of the Government, . on the other - Push the laws on detention as charitable institutions, . without organic connection with the recent,
. An eager and active participants of the congress of representatives of these institutions, . strongly insisted on the dangers, . pleasurable adolescents their appearance in the solemn atmosphere of the court of public, . He pointed to the need to bring to justice over them the nature of the trustee agencies and replace the criminal retribution pedagogical impact,
. Under his influence the motions was held congresses, which have resulted in the laws of 1892 and 1893 years, planted solely educational value of correctional juvenile detention. His work is largely owed their existence Laws 1897. criminal record and criminal liability of minors between the ages of 10 and 17 years and the law of 1909. on the educational and correctional institutions for juveniles. The last years of his life Dril devoted to the study of the practical state of affairs re perverse children, . pointing to the neglect of society in this respect its obligations, he took his audience in St. Petersburg agricultural colony, and led a group of students performed in 1910,
. whole trip for a review of such institutions, as well as factories and prisons, in Moscow, Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod and other cities. He actively participated in establishing the society of people's universities and society "People polytechnic" in St. Petersburg, . partnership to combat the housing shortage of insufficient population of the city of St. Petersburg, . in the work of the commission to combat alcoholism in the society escort of public health, . in chairing the first congress on alcoholism, . related to him the painful trials due to intensified at the congress of political passions in the preparation on behalf of the agencies detailed applications for streamlining the economic conditions of people's life, . in the works to clarify the usefulness and importance of cooperation, . to promote began working through, . in a number of works on societies patronage, . in studies of the Law Society,
. Throughout, . that said, . preaching and practicing Dril, . always dominated by independent thought, . firm and clear, . as a positive statement, . and in criticism, . always directed towards new horizons, . which was the consequence of serious mental work man, . quite alien to the vain conceit and at the same time free from the blind worship of kingpins,
. This idea could not rest on what is called classical school of criminal law. Fundamental question of its followers: "On what grounds to punish the violator of the law?" He contrasted the question of exactly who it punishes, rather than schematic, abstract and criminal tried to bring the light of God, the living person. He admitted, . that crime is often determined by abnormalities in the organism itself offender, . pushed a violation of the law to its unbalanced, . degenerate, . undeveloped and painful body, . scarcity which is largely attributed to modern social conditions,
. Despite such a broad view of the causes of crime, Dril not succumbed to the theories of the Italian representatives of the criminal-anthropological school and one of the first opposed the more daring than the research on "penology" and "Criminology". Never losing faith in man and in the possibility of its correction an awakening in him the influence of higher brain-spun motives, . Dril found, . that suitable measures to combat crime should be measures of public improvement, . measures of "public hygiene", . having to deal with issues of education, . with the peculiarities of the environment and the terms of the social system in its negative sides,
. In addition, he attached special importance to education, carefully studying and noting its perversion, so hard responding to the next life is essentially homeless street children. He spent the sad years of childhood. Due to ruin his father he had to live in an age when impressions are composed, deeply bedded in later life among strangers. Hence, he made a warm love for the child and care of the fence it from the harmful effects. In his article "Problems of correct formulation of education, explained the profound thoughts and subtle observations of the sources and conditions of the formation of character. His attitude to the people as expressed in the article "The kingdom of God is within us", . in which he said: "The natures, . covered by the truly religious sense, . along with the ministry of the Supreme Being, . that permeates the entire universe, . and selfless service is a favorite for children of this creature - people, . especially those who suffer, . workers and burdened ..,
. They always act for the benefit of others, but its share is left high and pure consciousness of perfect goodness, which elevates the soul. They are happy with your pure inner world and carry with them a clarity and joy in the world around them. Here are all these cards and have members of the kingdom of God, of the highest, perfect happiness, which is within us and which can not be replaced by the possession of all the riches of the world ". This "activity" was imbued with all the love lives of Dril. Preoccupied by the throat, . always possessed a holy concern about making the environment of life light of reason and knowledge, . ever, and nobody refused to board, . intercession or petition, . sometimes occurs in formal areas with cold suspicion, . it - tired, . weaker physically and does not know the rest, . carried covenant Seneca: vivere est militare and died suddenly, . among the height of its activity, . as a soldier with a weapon in the hands,
. A. F. K.

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