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( Well-known critic and novelist)

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Biography DRUZHININ Alexander
photo DRUZHININ Alexander
Born October 8, 1824, Mr.. St. Petersburg. The son of wealthy parents and bureaucratic, it is from an early age acquired a thorough knowledge of foreign languages and that good manners, which was the main feature is not only a personal nature, but the whole literary work of his. Entering the Corps of Pages, he became a supplier to the jury "works" for friends and wrote many humorous poems on different cases of school life. In the Life Guards regiment Finland Druzhnin was much loved by his comrades, but the regimental life does not satisfy him, and three years later he left her. Until 1851 he was listed in the Office of the Ministry of War, then became the "only" litterateur. Literary activity Druzhinina. The success has encouraged Druzhinina, and he in the year one after the other prints, three big things: "The story of Alexey Dmitrievich," "Fraulein Wilhelmina" and the novel "Julie", which as it finished its work belletristic. Still time to time to give the stories and even the big story, he sent his main force to the criticism and articles on the history of literature. And in his new endeavors Druzhinina expecting a big success. Letters nonresident subscriber, in mild to account to the news of the current literature, eagerly read, and despite all their playful lightness, Druzhinin became vacant with the death of Belinsky Role "first critic". Almost simultaneously, he acted as "essayist" and gave a series of extensive articles on English literature - Krabbe, . Richardson, . Sheridan, . Bosvele, . Johnson, . Walter Scott, . Disraeli, . - Which confirm his reputation as a connoisseur not only English, . but in general foreign literature,
. In 1850, Mr.. Druzhinin prints "Sentimental Journey Ivan Chernoknizhnikova of the St. Petersburg summer residences" and the debut yet another arena - a humorous lampoon. Success did not wait and then. True, "Warlock" has made some scandal in literary circles, but read very hard and attracted worldwide attention. Subsequently Druzhinin repeatedly and very willingly returned to the alias "Warlock". At the end of 1856. Druzhinin is headed by the editors of "Library for Reading", which occasionally cooperated in the past. All predicted the success of the new edition: Druzhinina friendly ties with the best representatives of the new literary generation - Turgenev, Tolstoy, Grigorovich, Annenkov, Botkin and others - an elegant taste of the editor, his love for the cause. Hope, however, is not justified: "Library for Reading was wiped up by other publications. Enough to read the profession de foi the new edition, to understand the reason for this failure. While, . when Russia was covered by a powerful desire for social renewal, . Druzhinin make any statement, . where not a word was mentioned about, . like looking for a new edition of a Russian life, . what direction she would like for him,
. She promised to run a business version of "Ohne Hast, Ohne Rast" - a slogan, ill-suited to an era that was rushing at all stages. In 1858 Druzhinin invited to co-editor starts to enter the great fame Pisemskiy. But this highly talented novelist, very little fit for the role of head of the magazine, which was supposed to compete with such publications as "Russian Messenger" and "Contemporary". As a result, "Library for Reading" took quite a secondary place. Turgenev, who in 1856. hoped that the magazine under the "team" Druzhinina quickly flourish, in 1861,. called her "deaf hole". By the beginning of 1861,. Dostoevsky left the editor "Library for Reading. Exacerbate the (consumption) did not give him the opportunity to work with the same zeal, but still he is in "Iskra", "Northern Bee" and "Herald" published a series of humorous satirical articles, and in St. Petersburg. Gazette "and" Russian Messenger wrote articles on foreign literature. In addition, Druzhinin continued translation of Shakespeare's dramas, begun in 1856. "King Lear", and published in The Russian Messenger 1862. (under the pseudonym Nameless), "The past summer in the country" - impression of a man who came to the village after the liberation of the peasants. January 14, 1864, Mr.. Druzhinin, died and was buried at the Smolensk cemetery. The name is closely linked to the establishment Druzhinina Literary Fund. After reading from the English edition of the British literary fund, . He verbally and in writing was to promote the idea of such a device in our society and, . when his idea met with warm sympathy, . took an active part in the unit fund and was one of the first members of its committee,
. In his name called and "Druzhininsky kopek". The literary heritage of a lot and write rapidly Druzhinina occupies many as 8 slim volumes (St. Petersburg, 1865). The least valuable in it - humorous satires "Chernoknizhnikova", a short flight of which is, however, a significant historical and literary interest, as a sign of decline in literary circles in the difficult years of reaction 1848 - 1855 period. With the death of Belinsky, Herzen and the departure from the onset of unhealthy suspicion of recent years pre-reform era, the spiritual physiognomy of the leading literary groups is rapidly changing. Employees Contemporary - Panaev, . Druzhinin, . Longinov, . Gajewski, . Grigorovich, . occasionally even Nekrasov - come together, . shall be made "Black Arts", . that is, composing humorous messages, . poems and all kinds of "literary pranks", . so transgresseth against censorship of morals, . that the issue had to be abroad,
. Someone from the "Warlock" come to mind clothe scattered improvisation "Black Arts" in a literary form, bind them "thread a long novel". Druzhininsky Journey Ivan Chernoknizhnikova "was the implementation of this plan. Of course, we found only a weak reflection of the "Black Arts", but in this form it aroused fear in members of the group, which insisted on a cessation of "Travel", striking a later readers, mainly for its small fry. As novelist, Druzhinin known to a large audience only "Polina Sachs, though his second novel," Story of Aleksei Dmitrievich, in artistic terms is much higher. The reason for the rapid and resounding success "Polina Sachs that it was one of the first and the very specific attempts to place in Russian literature," women's issue ". Improperly just see it as an extraordinary novelty and boldness: not only the main motive, but some provisions borrowed from George zandovskogo "Jacques". The author, however, and did not intend to give his story for something original in conception. In the place where her husband Polina Sachs, after learning that his young wife fell in love with another, does not consider itself the right to condemn it and to deny opportunities to go to the man she loved, Sachs says plainly: "ardent youth commemorate the new one on me, Jacques". Later literary works Druzhinina lame, boring and verbose. Same verbosity hurts Druzhinin and as the author of articles on English literature. They begin usually lively and entertaining, with characteristic Druzhinin elegance of style, but then the author seems tired and instead of animated transfer set out his books, gives a sluggish retelling. Especially unfortunate long series of articles on Johnson and Bosvele. Close acquaintance with English literature made Druzhinina extreme Anglomaniac. For him, there is practically no other measure to assess the European literary events, such as reception that he met in England, and, moreover, only in England, Tory. For the modern reader Druzhinin most interesting as a critic, does not, however, in the lightweight Letters nonresident Subscriber ", and in large critical articles, including a 7 of his collected works. Druzhinin - most remarkable of the Russian defenders of "pure art" and the most prominent of the enemies "didactics" - a term which he meant the tendency in art. In his dislike of "didactics" Druzhinin comes to allegations that they "do not put any great name" - and yet among them he includes Heine, George Sand and Victor Hugo. Of all Russian writers, it is nice to him all manner of sophistry enrolled in the ranks of the representatives of pure art, find themselves with little shrewd diagnostician and even less successful the Prophet. For example, in 1856, that is, on the eve of its greatest prosperity "didacticism" Druzhinin triumphantly proclaimed that the pure art of the final victory of art late 40's, with its aspirations to social reformism. In Turgenev, . whose work, . immediately after the appearance of articles about him Druzhinina, . totally went to the reflection of different "moments" of the Russian public sentiment, . Druzhinin had seen only "poet" and claimed, . that criticism of him "forcing" the aims and aspirations, . completely alien to his artistic nature,
. As in the theoretical views of their extreme advocate of "pure" art, Druzhinin does not, however, demanded from him alone, "sounds clean and prayers". For him, no reality was not "dirty". A number of writers - Pisemsky, . Ostrovsky and even Shchedrin - it imposes a high merit "knowledge of the case", . that is, they depict everyday life and, . totally agree with the literary antithesis of our own - Dobroluboff, . above all valued in his work "the truth",
. Written critical articles Druzhinina very subtly and gracefully, so a true gentleman, which, even among his opponents gave him the nickname "honest knight". But he missed the main qualities of the heart catches Russian reader: it is absolutely no enthusiasm, no ability to raise the reader to the height. That is why he so quickly fell into the category of "forgotten talent. - Wed. Article Nekrasov and Longinov with 8 volume of essays Druzhinina, Professor AI. Kirpichnikova in "Historical Messenger (1884,? 4), AV. Starchevsky ( "Observer", 1885, "4 and 5);" Diary Druzhinina "in the collection of literary fund" XXV Years, in the same article VP. Gajewski; memories Grigorovich, the first collection of letters by Turgenev; Vengerov "Works", t. V. S. Vengerov.

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DRUZHININ Alexander, photo, biography
DRUZHININ Alexander, photo, biography DRUZHININ Alexander  Well-known critic and novelist, photo, biography
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