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Zabelin Ivan Egorovich

( great Russian historian-archaeologist)

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Biography Zabelin Ivan Egorovich
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Born in 1820, Mr.. in Tver, in a poor family. After graduating from the course at the Transfiguration School in Moscow, could not continue education for lack of funds and in 1837. enlisted in the Armory, a minister of the second level clerical. Meet the drill and Snegirev aroused his interest in the study of Russian antiquity. According to archive documents, he wrote his first article on the Russian tsars travel on a pilgrimage to the Holy Trinity-Sergius Lavra, published in the extraction, in the Moscow Provincial Gazette 1842,? 17. This article, adapted and enlarged, appeared in 1847, Mr.. in the "Readings of the Moscow Society for the History and Antiquities". Read Granovsky home course of history has expanded the historical outlook Zabelina. In 1848, Mr.. He got the position of Assistant Archivist at the palace office, and in 1856. took the place of archivist. In 1859, Mr.. he joined the Imperial Archaeological Commission youngest member, and he was entrusted with the excavations of Scythian burial mounds in Ekaterinoslav province and the Taman Peninsula, near Kerch, which gave many precious finds. The results of the excavations Zabelin described in "Antiquities Gerodotovoy Scythia" (1866 and 1873) and the records of Archaeological Commission. In 1876, Mr.. Zabelin left the service in the commission. In 1871, Mr.. Zabelin received his honorary doctorate in Russian history from the University of St. Vladimir. In 1879, Mr.. elected chairman of the Society of History and Antiquities, and then vice-chairman of the Historical Museum. In 1884, Mr.. Zabelin corresponding member, and in 1892. - Honorary Member of the Academy of Sciences. At the solemn celebration of the 50 th anniversary, in 1892, and in 1907. (70-year anniversary) Zabelin was welcomed by Russian scientists world. Zabelin died Dec. 31, 1908, Mr.. Research Zabelina relate mainly ancient Kievan era and the Moscow period of Russian history. In the field of history and archeology of the external life of ancient times, his works prominently Zabelin also considers the basic principles of Russian life. Characteristic features of his - the belief in the original creative forces of the Russian people and love to the lower class, morally strong and healthy people - orphans, people - the breadwinner ". Therefore Zabelin seeks to put forward in the study of the historical process of the popular "common truth". Deep familiarity with the old and the love of her reflected in language Zabelina, expressive and original, extremely colorful and rich, with an archaic, folk tinge. For all its idealism, Zabelin does not hide the negative aspects of early Russian history, for example, the degradation of the individual in the genus and family domostroevskoy. In discussing the ideological foundations of Russian culture, he notes the importance of economic relations in the history of politics and culture. First major works Zabelina: "Home life of the Russian tsars in the XVI - XVII centuries" (1862) and "Home life in the Russian Czarina XVI - XVII centuries" (1869, . new edition, . 1872, . 1895 and 1901), . which were to form part of the labor of life of Russian people (left unfinished),
. They were preceded by a series of articles on selected issues of the same kind, published in The Moscow News "1846 g. in "Notes of the Fatherland" in 1851 - 58 years, . We find here a study on the importance of Moscow as the patrimonial city, . the role of the Tsar's palace, . the situation of women in ancient Russia (the chapter on this issue was published separately in the "Cheap Library Suvorin), . the influence of Byzantine culture, . of the clan,
. Important to develop a theory Zabelin patrimonial origin of the Moscow State. The continuation of Chapter I of the "home life of the Russian tsars, is a wonderful article" Great lord in his patrimonial economy "(Herald of Europe, 1871, # 1 and 2). Left in 1876 and 1879. two volumes of "History of Russian life since ancient times" (2 nd revised edition, t. I, Moscow, 1908; t. II, Moscow, 1912, edited by AV. Oreshnikova) represent the beginning of extensive work on the history of Russian culture. Zabelin wanted to find out all the original basis, . "roots and origins" of Russian life, and borrowing it from the Finns, . Normans, . Tatars and Germans, . and identify, . portray the most subtle and intimate, . as well as most of the everyday and the features of everyday life and the lives of Russian people,
. In the name of the identity of the Slavs Zabelin arming itself against the Norman theory. He departs here from his earlier views on race as the elemental force, prignetavshuyu and destroy the identity. By reducing the value of the founder, . he said, . that "the father - domoderzhets, . leaving home and join the ranks of other householders, . became an ordinary brother, brotherly kind represented by this community, . where the first and the natural law of life was a fraternal equality ",
. The writing ends with placement of Christianity (the era of Vladimir and Yaroslav). In the book "Minin and Pozharsky, straight and curved in the Time of Troubles" (Moscow, 1883, 4 th ed., Moscow, 1901), made up of polemical articles against Kostomarov Zabelin investigates the causes, confusion and class relations in old society. In Minin and Pozharsky he sees the national heroes, "the holy images of the popular movement". Number of articles 50 and 60-ies, . collected in 2 volumes of "The Experience of studying Russian antiquities" (1872 - 1873), . particularly remarkable: "The history and antiquities of Moscow", . Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich ", . "Russian identity and Russian society on the eve of the Petrine Reforms, . "Reflections on the problems of modern Russian history and antiquities",
. Also of interest in subsequent articles: "Looking at the development of the Moscow monocracy" ( "Historical Journal", . 1881, . ? 5; attempt to explain, . with economic and psychological factors, . strengthening of the Moscow princes) and "Traits of identity in the ancient Russian architecture" ( "Old and New Russia", . 1878, . ? 3 and 4),
. Besides, . Zabelin published: "The historical description of Moscow Donskoy Monastery" (M., . 1865 and 1893), . Kuntsevo and ancient Setunsky Stan "(M., . 1873, . with a striking sketch of the history of nature in the sense of ancient Russian society), . "Preobrazhenskoe or Transfiguration" (M., . 1883), . "Materials for the history, . Archeology and statistics of the city of Moscow "(Moscow, . 1891 - 1894),
. Conceived an extensive "History of the City of Moscow", Zabelin managed to give only one of its first volume (M., 1902, 2 ed. the album M., 1905). In the 86-volume "Encyclopedic Dictionary" Brockhaus-Efron (t. XIX, p. 927 - 936) published an article on the history of Moscow Zabelina. - See. Koyalovich "History of Russian national consciousness" and numerous magazine articles, including AN. Tsypin (Journal Europe ", 1876," 8); KN. Bestuzhev-Rumina ( "Old and New Russia", "8); Pervolfa (Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1877,? 7); M.V. Klochkova ( "Historical Journal, 1909, No. 2); Basil Sakhnovsky (" Russian Thought ", 1912, No. 5); NN. Ardasheva ( "Antiquities", t. XXII, 62), it D.N. Anuchina "I.E. Zabelin as an archaeologist "(ib. and separately, MA, 1909) and "Two trained for the anniversary, the literary activity" (L, LXX, MA, 1910). List of works Zabelina in the annex to the "Jubilee Report of the Imperial Rossiyskogo Historical Museum (Moscow, 1912). N. Pavlov-Sylvan (A. El-h).

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