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Zarudny Sergey

( Distinguished statesman)

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Biography Zarudny Sergey
photo Zarudny Sergey
(March 17, 1821. - 18 December 1887). Place of the old, impoverished Ukrainian noble family. With 14 years left to himself, sometimes suffering material need Zarudny graduated from Kharkov University course candidate of Mathematical Sciences. Arriving in St. Petersburg, supposed to do at the Pulkovo observatory, but at the Ministry of Justice. At this time, on judicial department was sent a circular to the proposal to deliver remarks on the shortcomings of the existing civil proceedings, in view of its review, undertaken by Part II His Majesty's own Office. Soon began to arrive in the comments of the Ministry of jurisprudence that Zarudny keenly interested in. He then began to study the process along the way becoming acquainted with foreign legal literature, and during trips abroad - and with the jurisprudence. In 1849, Mr.. Zarudny was appointed legal adviser to the Ministry of Justice consultation. Meanwhile, in Part II were identified by partial improvements in civil justice, but as they are rebuffed by the Justice Minister, Count Panin, then, on the initiative of standing at the head office of Count II Bludova, in 1852,. was formed a special committee to draft a civil action. His clerk was appointed Zarudny; the terms of the time he could make to the project only in minor technical improvements. The beginning of the reign of Alexander II gave the course his ability Zarudny; as a member of the Commission for disclosure of abuse commissariat during the Crimean War, Zarudny convinced the terrible form of governance were everywhere, and the court. In 1857, Mr.. He was appointed Assistant Secretary of State of the State Council and was able to defend the need for broad judicial reform. By Zarudny thought, it was decided to first develop the main start civil proceedings by sending out the preliminary conclusions on the subject of judicial practice and specialists. Body of their comments was distributed to members of the Council of State. Much of what previously were not allowed to say, has ceased to seem frightening and taboo, and in the mouth projects. Criminal Court and the judicial system, made in 1860. Count Bludov in the State Council, appeared and publicity, and the separation of judiciary from the administrative. In 1858, Mr.. Zarudny received a trip abroad to familiarize themselves with there the judicial system and has written more than ten special notes on the process. In these studies Zarudny opposed to slavery up to the French sample, . controvert hypochondriac routinists, . who considered the late conversion Russian court on the western European type, . tackle the question of the Court of Cassation, . the introduction of the World Justice, . barristers etc.,
. The abolition of serfdom also took place with the participation of Zarudny. As a member of the committee working on the organization of world institutions, Zarudny stood for self-government peasant community. September 25, 1860, Mr.. He was appointed to help to VP. Butkova under consideration in the Main Committee of the provisions of the peasants. In January 1861,. Zarudny, in the post of State Secretary of the Department of the laws, reported to the Council of State Regulations approved on February 19. He received while gold "peasant" medal Zarudny valued above all other awards. When the peasants put on the solid ground work for judicial reform. VP. Butkov at the time was at the apogee of their liberal passions. Its weight in the higher spheres Zarudny used to prepare the ground for a new formulation of the question of judicial reform. followed by the Supreme Order of education at the State Chancellery Commission to extract "the main fundamental principles" from previous projects Count Bludova. In January 1862. followed by a new decree, . present considerations which required the state office "on those major principles, . undoubted merit of whom are now recognized by science and experience of European states and Kojima should be converted part of the judiciary in Russia,
. This act, lift the ban on trial by jury and other institutions of the European court of law, and opened up an opportunity to make a solid, rational plan for the full conversion trial. The Commission, which was the soul Zarudny, in six months she performed her task, presenting a strictly coordinated, perfectly designed "Considerations and the basic provisions on civil and criminal proceedings". Among these principles were: complete separation of the judicial power of the legislature and executive, tenure of judges, independence of the legal profession, the decision of criminal cases tried by a jury, not excluding the cases of political and literary. Proposal committee member D.P. Rovinsky replace dumb Estates jurors jury was supported in particular N.A. Butskovskim Zarudny and most recently presented a detailed historical review of the jury and parsing of opinions for and against, refute, incidentally, a widespread view on the incompatibility of a jury with autocracy. "Basic Provisions" Highest were adopted on 29 September 1862. Zarudny insisted that they were published for general information. The preparation, according to the "Basic Regulations", the draft statutes of the judicial commission was formed, which disintegrated into the offices of civil proceedings, criminal justice and judicial system. Chaired Zarudny find their own branch of a civil court, but he worked with indefatigable energy in all offices, he also reported on the Commission later in the State Council, and in general was the soul of the whole affair. In 11 months have been drafted judicial charters equipped with extensive explanatory notes. Closest witness works Zarudny, . Butkov, . transmitting to him, . November 22, 1864, . the first instance court had just printed manuals, . in the inscription on it pointed, . that "the first instance by right should belong to Sergey Ivanovich, . a person, . which the new judicial reform in Russia more than the other owes its existence ",
. Following the publication of court statutes Zarudny participated in the drafting of additional statutes thereto, and a new commission to set rules on the enactment of legal regulations insisted on one-time introduction of regulations in all provinces Zemsky, . with a gradual strengthening of the courts,
. Finishing work on judicial reform, Zarudny put in order the vast "It's about the transformation of the judiciary in Russia" (in 74 volumes) and gave several sets of "cases" in St. Petersburg libraries and archives. Great service he rendered Russian science and jurisprudence, printed in 1866. "The judicial statutes, with the arguments, on which they are based," which became a handbook for judicial officials. When the judicial reform, following its implementation, was subjected to partisan criticism, Zarudny counteracted by what he could, reactionary trends. January 1, 1869, at the very height of his powers, he was appointed a senator and, irony of fate, is intended to prisutstvovaniyu in one of the old departments. Until the end of the life of the principal author of the judicial charters was not transferred to the cassation departments, in whose creation he played such a prominent role. Election Zarudny an honorary magistrates Kupyanska District, Kharkiv province, the site of his family name, caused him the last of grief, which is rich in the end of life Zarudny. Finding the irregular and inapplicable in the life of the Senate circular decree on the daily handling of cases by district judges and the submission of monthly reports to the Congress, . Zarudny entered Kupyanskyi World Congress with a proposal to suspend the enforcement of the decree and inform the Senate about his discomfort,
. The Senate, not addressing the merits, made the remark Kupyansk Congress, all the bitterness which was to test Zarudny. During the forced removal from the practice Zarudny much engaged in scientific and literary works. In 1869, Mr.. He published a comparative legal study on the civil code of the Italian kingdom and Russian trade laws ", in 1873,. amounted to the first Congress of Russian lawyers essay "On the necessity of publishing the entire civil laws 1857. and aligning them with all the subsequent by legislation ", which was completed only in 1888. Excellent knowledge of Italian language, he published an Italian translation of selected works of Russian poets. In 1879, Mr.. He published a translation of the book Beccaria: On Crimes and Punishments ", with interesting notes, and then translated" Hell "by Dante, with original interpretations of each song. Zarudny died on the way to Nice, where he is buried. - Wed. Nat. Dzhanshiev "Zarudny and judicial reform" (Moscow, 1889); his "Fundamentals of judicial reform" (Moscow, 1891), "Russian Antiquities" (1888, II, IX; 1890, II); п░.п╓. Horses in the book "The principal leaders of the judicial reform" (St. Petersburg, 1904).

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