Zarutsky Ivan Martynovich( The leader of the Russian Cossacks in the era of the Troubles)
Comments for Zarutsky Ivan Martynovich
Biography Zarutsky Ivan Martynovich
Born in Tarnopol, Zarutsky from Tatar captivity, which hit a child, fled to the Don Cossacks, who soon became the chieftain. Unrest on the Don, in connection with the appearance in Poland "Prince Dimitri", captured and Zarutsky. There are indications that he first came in Moscow imposter. The death of Dimitri Zarutsky returned to the Don, but soon he was in the army Bolotnikov, was already under the new capital. However Bolotnikov withstood a siege in Thule, but then was sent to search still is not "king of Dmitry, who fought in the name of the besieged. In Starodub Zarutsky found a new pretender, joined him and became his close. In the winter, in order to gather new strength, Zarutsky visited the Don and the spring of 1608, Mr.. resulted in the Eagle 5 thousandth unit. Placed with Lisowski led by the Cossack forces Tushinskogo thief, Zarutsky made a new campaign to Moscow, and in 1609, Mr.. pinned at the critical moment the army Shuya River Khimki. In Tushino Zarutsky government, granted by rank of nobleman, was one of the main advisers potentates. After the flight of False Dmitri II in Kaluga (January 1610) Zarutsky not followed him and at meetings with the ambassadors of Sigismund decided not to recognize any Shuisky or "Tushinskogo thief". When most of the Don returned to him, Zarutsky not followed them, and went to Smolensk to Sigismund. In the army е¦цЁе-kiewski he went to Moscow, but, after a quarrel on the road with the hetman, went to Kaluga and stayed faithful servant "King Demetrius" until his death (December 1610). In February, 1611. he was negotiating with Sapieha, but soon joined the national movement against the Poles led his Cossacks to Moscow. The significance of his unit and influence of its own among the Cossacks and the extreme men of Tushino gave him a place at the head of the interim government, along with Trubetskoi and Lyapunov. Concerted work in the establishment of the State was to be expected with such a composition of "superiors". A true Cossack, Zarutsky could not be like-minded men of Tushino hereditary prince Trubetskoy and the more the leader zemshchina Lyapunov. Upon the death of the last (22 July 1611), the weakness of Trubetskoy, Zarutsky was governor of the state. Have become acquainted with a widow in Kaluga-queen Marina, he dreamed about more: the king of Moscow's intention to announce a second baby son, Dimitri, and Marina, to his age, hoping to become a regent. This plan met with no sympathy and support even in Moscow, and in the country, among zemstvo people at the call of Hermogenes took the decision "does in the realm of the damned Panina, Marina son did not want". Zarutsky attempt to stop the movement of Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl grab failed. Then Zarutsky planned to strengthen its position oath (2 March 1611), the third "king Demetrius, already recognized in Pskov, and in December sent to the encampments its ambassador. But the country gave their sympathy organized in Yaroslavl, the interim government, the last troops were driven from the north to Moscow, resisted the troops of Cossacks, . a good salary and content are punished in Yaroslavl is not only a serving noble folk, . but the Cossacks of the regiments, . standing under the capital,
. Requests for assistance against the Poles, . remorse in the oath Pskov thief will not be reconciled with Zarutsky Pozharskogo; Zarutsky organized attempt on the life of the new leader zemshchina failed; near Moscow commotion caused by the unexpected was this attempted intercourse with Zarutsky Chodkiewicz,
. In early August 1612, in view of the approaching troops advanced Zemsky, Zarutsky to correct him nearly half the army before Moscow had fled to Kolomna, and from there, taking Marina with his son, further south, in Mikhailov. Proclaimed king "Baby Brigand, Zarutsky again at the end of 1612, attempted to penetrate to Moscow, but was defeated by Pereyaslavl Ryazan. His Cossacks defeated Epifan, . Dedilov, . Krapivno, . but the situation Zarutsky, . especially with the election of the kings of Mikhail Fedorovich, . becoming critical: whole detachments of his former supporters kissed the cross to the new sovereign, . southern cities rose, . defensive of his harassment, he had to go farther south from pursuing his royal governor,
. After a two-day battle at Voronezh Zarutsky went to Astrakhan. Here he has made promises of assistance from Nagaev, sent ambassadors to the Shah of Persia, szyval Cossacks, and even with the upper Volga Cossack gangs had been intending to go to him. Married, one foreign lime, with Marina, Zarutsky going in the spring of 1614, Mr.. Volga back to Russia, again, dreaming about the rule of Moscow, if not on the throne of Moscow. The Government of the Tsar Michael has managed to keep letters from moving to Zarutsky a significant part of the Don and Volga Cossacks tried, without success, to achieve repentance from the Zarutsky spring and sent a large army against him with the prince Odoyevsky. But even before his arrival Zarutsky fate was sealed. Behavior of his Cossacks outraged Astrakhan; Zarutsky was forced to lock themselves in a fortress. Astrakhan came to the aid of the Terek city Khokhlov with the musketeers. Zarutsky tried to get up the Volga, but routed Khokhlov, descended from a small Cossack detachment of the sea and disappeared for a while. Sent Odoyevsky Palchikov soon found the trail it on Yaike (Urals), and walked behind him up the river to Bear Island, where the tsar's troops surrounded the Cossacks gave Zarutsky and Marina with her son (June 1614). Brought to Moscow, Zarutsky was impaled. Against the backdrop of hostility and hatred Zarutsky exception is the record for the commemoration of "boyar Ivan Martynovich Zarutsky in Synodikon Lebedyanskiy (Tambov province) Trinity Monastery, in the birthplace of the Romanov boyars". - See. SF. Platonov "Essays on the history of the Troubles"; O.P. Pirling "Historical articles and notes" (St. Petersburg, 1913), PG. Lubomir "Essays on the history of Nizhny Novgorod militia" ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1913 and 1914.) I.I. Iron "Marinkin town" (in II T. "Ural'tsev, edition 1910); Nick. Kolaisovsky "Lebedinskii Trinity Monastery male unimportant" ( "Tambov Diocesan Gazette, 1875,? 19). On first appearance in Moscow Zarutsky cm. "Monuments of diplomatic relations", t. II, Art. 992.