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Biography KABLITS Joseph I.
Better known under the name of Hughes, was born in 1848, descended from the nobility Kovno province, on the Lutheran faith, was educated in Kiev Gymnasium and the University of Kiev, where, however, did not finish the course. Fascinated by the end of the student unrest of the sixties and early seventies, he became one of the most dedicated representatives of Populism as a specific socio-political trends, are equally hostile to liberalism and the bureaucracy. His younger years were spent in selfless efforts to implement their ideals in life, he participated in "going to the people", . wandered about various parts of Russia as a simple agricultural worker, . and had for several years hiding under various names, . subjected to all sorts of adventures and dangers,
. Speaking in the literature in the late 70-ies under the name Hughes, . He drew the attention of his persistent preaching of populist ideas in the newspaper "Week"; greatest success was his article about "mind and sense, . as a factor of progress ", . where he first tried to theoretically justify the principles of Populism,
. In 1881, Mr.. He published a book about his studies, Russian dissidents "(Raskolnikov), published earlier in" Word "and in other journals. In this small book, . wealth of factual information, . He carries the idea, . that between the people and the government there was antagonism, . that and put it in a split, . and that is still a significant proportion of the population stubbornly rejects the beginning, . underpinning modern social order,
. The split is, in his view, "protested the Russian people against the Tatar-German innovation did not meet either the character or the good of the people". In 1882, Mr.. his book on "Fundamentals of Populism", made up of recycled their journalistic, philosophical, critical and polemical articles placed in the "Week". In this work Kablits rises mainly against the alleged claims of intellectuals "wise over the people," he impose new forms of life, regardless of the desires and opinions of the masses. Element feelings played a more important role in people's lives and stories, . than knowledge and understanding, in the sense of ordinary people is stronger and richer than the intellectuals, . because it hold fast to the instinctive desire for truth and justice, so - concludes Kablits - the educated classes should not pretend to rukovoditelstvo national life,
. After the publication of this book Kablits was able to take its present name: his old political passions have been forgotten because of his quiet and inoffensive literary activity, . are nothing improper with the official point of view,
. In 1885 he released a new book entitled: "The intellectuals and the people in public life in Russia", he later revised and greatly complement this book as the second part of the Principles of Populism "(1893), . after the first essay under that title live to see the second edition (1888),
. In the last years of his life Kablits in the service, the department of state control, he died on August 4, 1893, Mr..
Proceedings Kablitsa sin partly the lack of system, one-sidedness of some opinions and conclusions, an excess of polemics directed to the wrong address, but filled with remarkable warmth and conviction of tone. Kablits represented an interesting type of "populist" seventies, and literary activities it represents an interesting material for the characteristics of the intellectual movement of an era, not yet lit in our press. According to his temperament and cast of mind and character, Kablits was above all a man struggle, and so he remained in the literature. In the first treatise on populism attacks on imaginary enemies of the people still occupy relatively little space controversy becomes sharper in the book "The Intelligentsia and the people", . more intensified in the second edition of "Fundamentals" and reaches almost morbid passion in his last work - the second part of "Fundamentals",
. As is removed in the past period of youthful hopes and impulses, are increasingly advocated the need to replace something old and create a hobby at least the illusion of control in the name of former ideals. Whatever the flaws of reasoning Kablitsa, can not, however, admitted that he had created a special doctrine of populism (see) and a natural attraction to the masses deduced the general principles that are developed and defended before the end of his life. L. Slonimsky.

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