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Kalachov Nikolai

( Academic historian and lawyer, senator)

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Biography Kalachov Nikolai
photo Kalachov Nikolai
(1819 - 1885). Home education of his supervised Ph.D. Gegerman, instilled in him a love of history, then he studied at the Moscow Institute of the nobility and the University of Moscow, at the Faculty of Law. As a student, Kalachov wrote the study: "On Sudebnik King John Vasilyevich, placed in the" Legal Notes ", unreleased Redkino (Volume I and II). Service began in Kalachov archaeographic commission, but soon resigned to take up farming in their ancestral estates. In 1846, Mr.. He returned to Moscow and took the place of the librarian in Moscow the main archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In the same year he defended his dissertation in Moscow "The Russian Pravda" and again got the position of official Archaeological Commission, on secondment for training in Moscow. At the service in the commission Kalachov remained and, after in 1848, with the release of the Moscow University K.D. Kavelin became chair of the history of Russian legislation, which he remained until 1852,. As a professor, Kalachov paid most attention to the so-called external history of law, devoting most of its course critical review and Reception monuments of Russian legislation. This shows a certain school, . traces of which is the study and Kalachova "The significance Helmsman in the Russian law" (first in the "Readings of the Society of History and Antiquities", . 1847), . established, followed by an authoritative name in the history of science of Russian Law,
. In 1850, Mr.. Kalachov begins edition of Archives of historical legal information on Russia, which, thanks to the work of the publisher and a number of scientists of the new school was a very important phenomenon then the historical literature. In addition to matters of the ancient Russian law, . in "Archive" placed on the study of ancient life in general, . those new methods, . that developed at that time in history, . Philology, . Ethnography, . thanks to the work Solovyov, . Kavelina, . Buslaeva, . Afanasyev and other,
. Since 1857. publication Kalachova became known as the "Archives of historical and practical information relating to Russia". In 1851, Mr.. Kalachov was appointed a member of the Archaeological Commission, and in 1852,. He was charged with publication of the Supplement to the acts of historical ". To collect materials Kalachova made in 1852 and 1853, Mr.. Archaeological tour of Russia, which has resulted in published in 1852,. "Historical notes collected in Orel and Mtsensk". Leaving the chair, . Kalachov moved to St. Petersburg and worked here in the second part of His Majesty's own Office of, . where he was charged with editing the third edition of the civil laws, . and the Archaeological Commission, . preparing a number of publications: 3 volumes of "acts, . relating to the legal life of ancient Russia ", . 2 volumes "scribe books, . 3 books, reports and judgments of the Senate in 1711 and 1712 ", . 3 volumes "Archives of the State Council and t,
. d. The index, compiled by a. Vostokov ( "Historical Journal", 1887, Book 5), listed a total of 16 publications, edited by K. Appointed member of the editorial committees for the drafting of the provisions of the peasants, Kalachov worked in the legal department of their. His first report on the termination of serfdom, its thoroughness astonished other members of the commission. Kalachov also participated in the commission, constituted new judicial statutes. His initiative, owe their existence to, among other things, Article 130 of the Charter of Civil Procedure, the first time legalized the use of customary law in court. Later Kalachov was chairman of the commission, established under the Geographical Society to collect people's legal practices. In the "ethnographic collection, they published a study on" Gangs in the ancient and present-day Russia, "and in" Compendium of public knowledge "-" The township and village courts in the ancient and present-day Russia,. In the kinds of training forces for a new trial, . Kalachov gathered in St. Petersburg circle of young lawyers and dealt with issues of practical trial, . and later in Moscow contributed to the establishment of the Law Society, . was its first chairman and started the "Legal Notice",
. When in 1870 held in Moscow on the first (and so far the only) legal congress Kalachov was elected its chairman and took an active part in his works and their publication. His dream was to arrange legal congresses periodically, on behalf of the Moscow Law Society, he fussed about it, but to no avail. Having become in 1865. manager of the Moscow archives of the Ministry of Justice, Kalachov formed therein, of persons with higher education, a special "academic department", for the systematic description of the archive documents. By his own motion arranged new facility for the archives of the Ministry of Justice, opened after his death, procured from the city donated the land. Archive business Kalachov devoted a special article: "The records of national importance, composition and arrangement" ( "Collection of public knowledge"). Question of the device of our archives more than once raised Kalachova on archaeological congresses, thanks to his initiative and with his assistance came at us in different cities scientists archival Commission. In order to prepare archivists, . not only could read and analyze documents, . but stand at the head of historical and archaeological works in different places in Russia, . was founded in 1877, . thoughtful Kalachova and modeled on the famous Parisian Ecole des Chartes, . St. Petersburg Archaeological Institute, . first director of which was Kalachov,
. Since the founding of the Institute Kalachov when it published "Collection of the Archaeological Institute, and since 1885. - Journal of Archeology and History ". Death found Kalachova for preparing the publication of materials for the history of the Russian nobility ". See. "Biographical Dictionary of professors of Moscow University (Moscow, 1855, Part I); obituaries in the Journal of Archeology and History" (Issue V), "The Herald of Europe" (1885, XII), "Law Journal" (1885, XI); A. Vostokov, "Literary activity Kalachova" ( "Historical Journal", 1887, V); VS. Ikonnikov, "Experience in Russian historiography" (Kiev, 1891 - 92, Volume I). Quite a full list of works, articles and publications Kalachova cm. Article Vostokova. N. Vasilenko.

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Kalachov Nikolai, photo, biography
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