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Katkov, Mikhail Nikiforovich

( The famous Russian writer)

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Biography Katkov, Mikhail Nikiforovich
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Born in Moscow in 1818, Mr.. from his father, a petty official, and mother of Georgian origin. He graduated from the course at Moscow State University, in the verbal department. The university took a great interest in philosophy and joined Stankevich; closest friends with Belinsky and Bakunin. Was an active member of the Moscow Observer ", when he edited the Belinsky, and at the same time with the latter began to cooperate in the Fatherland Notes Krajewski. He wrote mainly bibliographical notes, translated Heine, Hoffmann, Shakespeare. In "Notes of the Fatherland" attracted the attention of his article: "On the Russian folk songs", . "On the history of ancient Russian literature Maksimovic", . of The Works of Sarah Countess Tolstoy, . written in high national spirit, . with a touch of mystical mood,
. Belinsky was so fascinated by them, that the author saw in the "great hope of science and Russian literature. In late 1840, Mr.. Katkov went to Berlin, where for two semesters he attended lectures of Schelling. On his return from abroad, he tried to enter public service. "Maximum of my ambitions - he wrote Krayevsky - go to any ace or Tuzik in special assignments". At this time, he breaks all his literary connections. Also changing, and look at him Belinsky. Trustee of the Moscow school district, Count Stroganov, who drew attention to Katkov, as a very capable student, gives him lessons in various aristocratic families. In 1845, Mr.. He defended his thesis on "elements and forms of the Slavic-Russian language" and appointed assistant professor in the department of philosophy. As a professor, Katkov, according to his friend N.A. Lyubimov, the gift of speech did not possess and could enthrall listeners. When, in 1850, teaching philosophy was assigned to a professor of theology, Katkov became editor of the Moscow Gazette and the official for special assignments in the Ministry of Education. In 1852, Mr.. in Propileyah "- the collection, published Leontiev, with whom Katkov became close friends back in 1847 - appeared philosophical work Katkov:" Essays on the ancient period of Greek philosophy ". In 1856, Mr.. Katkov succeeded, with the support of the Deputy Minister of Education, Prince P.A. Vyazemsky, obtain permission for the publication of The Russian Messenger. At first he did not participate in the department of the magazine, which was specifically dedicated to discussing political issues, t. e. in "Modern Chronicle. The era of indigenous government reform arouses in him, however, interest in politics. He begins to deal with the British state system, . exploring Blackstone and Gneysta, . travels to England, . to personally look at the British orders, . opposes the revolutionary and socialist enthusiasms, . an ardent supporter of the British public institutions, . dreams of creating Russian gentry, . fond of the British Institute of magistrates and advocates a strong advocate of freedom of speech, . jury, . local,
. In all cases the collision with the censorship Katkov appealed to higher authorities to thoroughly set forth the notes, which set forth his views on the current state and social issues. Through connections he had in high government circles, these notes reach the target. In Count Stroganoff, he enlisted the location of the graph Bludova, and thus even the wrath of some ministers turned out in relation to him impotent. In 1863, Mr.. he became, along with Leontiev, editor of the Moscow Gazette. When, in January of that year, an uprising began in Poland, Katkov took it rather indifferently. Only to the extent that, . as from different sides showered loyal address, and flared diplomatic correspondence, . Katkov was put in his newspaper article passionate, . one hand, . appealing to the patriotic feelings of the Russian people, . on the other - demanding not the suppression of the Polish nation, . and calling it to the new, . common with Russia's political life ",
. Such was the mood prior to the appointment Katkov Muraveva Governor-General in Vilnius. Regardless of the severe repressive measures, the government decided not to rely on the gentry, and the Polish peasantry. In these types of peasant reform was conceived 1864. First in the press pointed out the need for such reform IS. Aksakov; Katkov rebelled against it, arguing that it is not feasible. In this sense, he spoke in the autumn of 1863, and February 19 next year, reform is carried. Empathy, which met Katkova article on the Polish question in a certain part of Russian society, gave him a high opinion of his journalistic role. He proclaimed at the beginning of 1866, that "the true root of the rebellion is not in Paris, Warsaw and Vilna, and in St. Petersburg, in the activities of those persons" who do not protest against the powerful influences that contribute to evil ". Katkov's refusal to print the first warning given to the Moscow Gazette, has led to a second, and the next day - the third caution of the suspension of the newspaper for two months. Immediately after he was able to seek the highest audience, and he was able to resume its activities significantly, however, temper the tone of his articles. In 1870, Mr.. again he gets a warning, but not denied, as in 1866, to accept it, and admits his mistake and then, until the early 80's, does not put in his newspaper articles, which could cause dissatisfaction higher administrative domains. Final turn in his political mood, however, occurred only in the very early 70-ies. Until then, he saw all the evil in Polish or foreign intrigue, which, supposedly, gnarl their nest, and administrative spheres, and now he rebels against the Russian intelligentsia in general and "bureaucratic" in particular. "As soon as the talk and begin to act, our intellectuals, we fall" - he exclaimed, strongly condemning the court, and print. After granting emergency powers to Count Loris-Melikov, . Katkov, welcomed "the new people, . included in the state case "(although at that time held the dismissal of Minister of Education, . Count Tolstoy, . which is always highly placed "Moscow News"), . and at the Pushkin celebration (June 1880) speech, . which stated, . that "the momentary convergence ..,
. lead to pacification, "and that" on Russian soil, people, just sincerely wish good as genuinely come together all at the celebration of Pushkin, may face and feud with each other in a common effort just a misunderstanding ". It Katkov met with no sympathy of those present; Turgenev turned away from the outstretched to him Katkov glass. The perpetrators of the catastrophe March 1, 1881, Mr.. Katkov recognized the Poles and the intellectuals. After the manifesto on April 29 Katkov began to argue that "a few months, perhaps weeks, of the former regime - and the collapse would be inevitable". Since then he starts with unprecedented harshness of attacks on the courts and on local self-government. Being in the early 80-ies an ardent supporter of Bismarck, whom he called "more Russian than our diplomacy, not by having a national soil," he in 1886, Mr.. rebellion against the same diplomacy for the fact that she does not wish to quarrel with Germany, and speaks of "articles, the usurper named government reports". He attacked the financial institution (N.H. Bunge), accusing him of the fact that it consists of anti-government activists. The same accusation is being built them and the Ministry of Justice, when the representative of his (D.N. Nabokov) in a public speech, considered it my duty to refute criticism of the judicial establishment (1885). Katkov and attacked the Government Senate, . "feel a special affection for all kinds of prerogatives Zemsky arbitrariness", . and the Council of State, . seeing in its critical attitude to the Bills indoctrination and obstructionism, and reproached him for "playing in the parliament, . t,
. e. for the division into majority and minority. The sharp tone caused displeasure against Katkov by administrative areas exposed to attack: Katkov, came to St. Petersburg to provide an explanation. Shortly after returning to Moscow, he died July 20, 1887, Mr.. - From the foregoing it is evident that Katkov constantly change their views. For a little over 30 years of his journalistic activities, he became a moderate liberal in the extreme conservative, but even here the sequence had not been. For example, in the 60 years he can not praise enough the gymnasium charter in 1864, calls it "a huge reform of its size", "One of the most fruitful reign Affairs", "His glory". In 1865, Mr.. Katkov is already finding that this statute "is not sufficient in the details of its program". When the Minister of Education becomes Count Tolstoy (1866), . Katkov wrote, . "all cause of reform, as it were hanging by a thread", . in 1868, . to the founding of the Lyceum of the Tsarevich Nicholas, . he is already in the strongest possible terms condemns the gymnasium charter in 1864, . is then the main supporter of high school reform, . and after its implementation (1871) - the most straightforward defender of the new order,
. Until the late 70-ies he was strongly in favor of free trade, to restore the value of our currency, by reducing the number of credit cards that are in the national treatment. Since the early 80's, he advocated protectionist and ardent supporter of the unlimited issue of paper money. During the Polish insurrection, he argues that the rapprochement with France, "can we just drop and relax". After a visit to Emperor Alexander II of the Paris exhibition in 1867, Mr.. He finds that "there is on earth a single point ... where would Russia and France could not assist each other ". After then, he was an ardent supporter of the three-imperial alliance and explicitly declares, after the Franco-Prussian War, that "the strengthening of Germany does for us is not dangerous". Even in 1875, . if only through the personal intervention of Emperor Alexander II was prevented by a new massacre of France, . Katkov answered about all of this incident as a "British intrigue", . directed to, . to "undermine confidence between the three emperors",
. After the Berlin Congress, he opposed Germany and adheres to this view until 1882, when it becomes again a supporter of Prince Bismarck. Four years later, Katkov exposes Bismarck worst enemy of Russia and sees salvation in an alliance with France. With such volatility Katkov's views could not find their source in science or history and government experience. If councils Katkova were always being taken into account, could not be quiet and good for public life, constantly had to be replaced by a new set, the opposite. His influence, . which reached the special forces during the coincidence of one or other of his opinions and views of the intentions of the Government, . largely due to his stylistic talent, . and freedom, . which he, . in contrast to representatives of the other views, . could sometimes express their views,
. "Complete Collection of editorials in the Moscow Gazette Katkova his widow published in 25 volumes. Works on the evaluation of Katkov, a little. Chief among them: Lyubimov, MN. Katkov (personal recollections, St Petersburg, 1889); Nevedensky, "Katkov and his time" (St. Petersburg, 1891; admitted to trading only in 1910). See. as a chronicle of the Public? 9 "The Messenger of Europe" for 1887, Mr.. R. Sementkovsky.

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Katkov, Mikhail Nikiforovich, photo, biography
Katkov, Mikhail Nikiforovich, photo, biography Katkov, Mikhail Nikiforovich  The famous Russian writer, photo, biography
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