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Knyazhnin Yakov Borisovich

( Famous playwright)

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Biography Knyazhnin Yakov Borisovich
photo Knyazhnin Yakov Borisovich
(1742 - 1791)
The son of the vice-governor of the Pskov. Entered the gymnasium at the Academy of Sciences, learned languages: French, German and Italian. Even in high school reading Metastasio, Racine, Haller, Gesner, and wrote an ode. He served in the ministry of foreign affairs, then enlisted in the army and was adjutant general on duty in. In 1769, was staged at the Hermitage Theater, in the presence of Empress Catherine II, the first tragedy Knyazhnin "Dido" does not converge after 40 years with the repertoire of. With a production of "Dido" in Moscow Knyazhnin friends with Sumarokov and married his eldest daughter. Friendship with the rich and revelers Karina drew Knyazhnin in life beyond their means: he lost all his fortune and spent about 6000 rubles of public money, for which the definition of a military court sentenced to demotion. Catherine II pardoned him and returned him to the rank of captain. Before the disaster Knyazhnin wrote the tragedy "Vladimir and Yaropolk" comedy "miserly" and the comic opera "The misfortune of the coach". Forced to seek disaster livelihoods Knyazhnin undertook the translation (Voltaire, Corneille, Crebillon, Idylls Gesner). In 1781 obtained a place Knyazhnin Secretary I.I. Betsky management Smolny Institute, the office of the structure of the gardens and houses and educational buildings (the statute was last edited by Knyazhnin). Knyazhnin edit all business papers Betsky. Since 1781 Knyazhnin gave Russian lessons in the land Gentry case. S.N. Glinka recalls Knyazhnin as a good teacher. In 1783 Knyazhnin elected to membership in the Russia Academy. In 1784 a huge success placed second once famous tragedy Knyazhnin "Rosslau", with the participation Dmitrevsky. Behind it followed "Sofonizba", "Vladisan", "Vadim", comedy "braggart," "Jackass," "Poor peacemaker," "Mourning, or comfort the widow," "Fake crazy," comic opera "Sbitenschik". In the 80 years of XVIII century Knyazhnin enjoyed the glory "Russia Racine". He was entrusted to write "Titus mercy" for a court performance. Around the same time is a series of small works Knyazhnin: fairy tales and fables, "Stanzas to God," a letter in verse, "You and You," "Confession zhemanihi", "a verse from Uncle Riemoskrypa" message to Princess Dashkova and pr. Shortly before his death a tragedy "Vadim", . which was deduced from the political neblagonamerennost, . almost caused a storm again in the life Knyazhnin: glorification of political freedom frightened by the French Revolution the Government seemed to almost call to rebellion, . Knyazhnin and hastened to take back "Vadim",
. The play has not been spread. Knyazhnin full imitators, "pereimchiv" as aptly defined by Pushkin. Plays Knyazhnin heavily - and borrowing the remaking of the French and Italian writers: the tragedy "Vladisan" served as a model for Knyazhnin Voltaire "Merope", . "Vladimir and Yaropolk" - an imitation of "Andromache" Racine, . "Sofonizba" borrowed from Trissino and a follower of his Lore, . "Braggart" - at Detusha etc.,
. Such borrowing and imitation was not a lack in the eyes of Knyazhnin; his play to sweep. Main merit Knyazhnin - Development other than at the time of the syllable, and, compared with Sumarokov, light, beautiful verse. Tragedies Knyazhnin have educational value, they are imbued with the ideas of moral duty, the spirit of patriotism, civil liberties. Many expressions of tragedies and comedies Knyazhnin were in their time walking, generally accepted. Comic opera Sbitenschik "and" Misfortune from the coach "(the latter was the beloved comic opera of Catherine II) are curious by their color Populist. "Sbitenschik" an idea about the device in St. Petersburg theater for the people, he was based, but short-lived, for lack of a suitable repertoire. In the opera "The misfortune of the coach" gives a very vivid picture of the household, the basic tendency of the play does not comes through clearly, but the picture depicted the horrors of the feudal no less clearly than in "Voyage Radishchev. Political dissidence Knyazhnin, his understanding of the main social evils of the time - serfdom, his sympathy for the "venerable feeders of the human race" (words Knyazhnin), aversion to the "village oppressors" can not be questioned. "Village of the oppressors, and in a very unattractive light, Knyazhnin brought in the comedy" braggart "- in the face Prostoduma. Political dissidence Knyazhnin clearly expressed in the tragedy Knyazhnin Vadim (Vadim Republican struggle with the autocrat Rurik; tirade in the spirit of Rousseau), and in the manuscript "Woe to my homeland", . as described in "Notes" Glinka (the requirement of political and social reforms),
. Some characters Knyazhnin became prototypes: Cheston (comedy "braggart") recalls the old Grinyova of Captain's Daughter, Pushkin "mutual friend" a coward in the "eccentrics" - Griboedov Repetilova. Lozhnoklassik in its drama, Knyazhnin in lyric no stranger to a new direction - sentimentalism. He is one of the first hailed the "Letters of a Russian Traveler" Karamzin, are also characteristic of the idyll Knyazhnin, his translations Haller and Gesner. Works Knyazhnin been published four times: the best edition in 1817, with a biography. - See. "Notes" S.N. Glinka's biography in the publication in 1817, articles in. Stoyunina in the "Library for Reading" (1850, No. 5 - 7) and in "East. Vestn. "(1881,? 7 - 8), A. Galakhova in the "Patriotic. Zap. "(1850), M. Logninova in The Russian Messenger "(1860,? 4 - 10)," Russian Archives "(1863 - 1866). I. E.

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