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Kochubei Viktor

( The prince, the State Chancellor of the Interior)

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Biography Kochubei Viktor
photo Kochubei Viktor
(1768 - 1834). Nephew and pupil of Catherine Bezborodko, . Kochubei he was obliged only career and practical preparation for the state of, . but good for that time, education, . as well as some guiding ideas, . mainly in the field of foreign policy,
. In 1784, Mr.. Kochubei was reckoned to the Stockholm mission, in 1788, Mr.. - To London. While abroad, Kochubei devoted much time to complete their education. In 1792, Mr.. Kochubey, who managed to win, despite all the confusion of family relations and courtiers of Catherine, her benevolence, Zubov, Paul and Alexander, was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary in Turkey. In 1798, Mr.. Kochubei was appointed to the board of Foreign Affairs and in 1799. elevated to the Count's dignity. Good relationship with the family Kochubei Paul made his position very difficult. Not wanting to break whim sovereign, but daring to stand up to him for his family, Kochubey been disfavor of the Emperor. His uncle died at this time, and he resigned. Upon the death of Paul Kochubei becomes close to Alexander, while maintaining good relations with his mother. Kochubei was a member of the secret committee of Alexander, but, taking position as Head of Russian foreign policy, stood somewhat apart from other members. This liberalism Kochubei was quite dead, but his caution is very high. Kochubey found that the foreign policy of Russia, according to the best legacy of the XVIII century. Must be "based on the state, rather than the passion for this or other power; with Czartoryski he considered a natural friend of Russia to England. In an effort to keep Russia a free hand Kochubei collided with Alexander, an increasingly be influenced Prussia. In 1802. Kochubei was appointed Minister of the Interior with the assistance of Speransky he organized his ministry, . expelling him from every shadow of collegiality, . and spent much ongoing work to address the needs of the country, . mainly, . food and industrial development; Black Sea region owe him the attention of government,
. In 1807, on the basis of foreign policy, in matters which Kochubei continued to maintain influence, there was his break with Alexander. Live Kochubei interest, as a major landowner in the world and trade with England and its long-standing personal sympathy for her given the particular focus of his speech against the subordination of Tilsit Russian politics of the French. Kochubei became the leader of the British party, "the head" of the civil opposition to Alexander. Savary discovered before Alexander Kochubey relations with the British ambassador, personally offensive to Alexander - and Kochubei was stripped of his post. When the success of the Finnish war tore the opponents of the French Union the opportunity to talk about his disastrous for the country, Kochubey was forced to abandon its intransigence. Retreat went through Speransky. Kochubey went to France and brought back the admiration of Napoleon's organization of the monarchy. He remained, however, aside from direct participation in governance and has concentrated its forces on the reform of finance. In 1812, Mr.. Kochubey position was ambiguous: an old enemy of the French Union, and prominent people in court circles and krupnozemlevladelcheskih, . Kochubey, . though to a lesser extent, . than Rostopchin and other, . was the banner of the nobility and protivofrantsuzskoy policy, . - But at the same time was a friend and guide plans proclaimed a traitor, . enemy of the nobility and other French Speransky,
. Duality of Kochubei said for him Alexander and society. In 1813, Mr.. Kochubei was appointed president of the Central Council's short-lived, and in 1819, Mr.. Managing the Ministry of the Interior (with accession of the Ministry of Police). Kochubey went to the post with the plans rather broad administrative reforms to comply with these conditions, which, however, failed. Costs, largely from domestic and foreign policy of Alexander and not being able to regain the lost since 1807, Mr.. his confidence, Kochubey in its "very rotten, and very cowardly" ministry, with absolute power Arakcheeva in the center of self-will and governors-general in the field, had no real power. In 1823, Mr.. Kochubey, the final triumph Arakcheeva, was dismissed. Returning to the office only under Nicholas I, Kochubei was in 1826. appointed chairman of the State Council, the Committee of Ministers and the Committee of 6 December 1826, Mr.. Once broken from the old plans on top of the administrative ladder, Kochubey, where he could, he saved at least a name and the shadow of the old moderate liberal initiatives. They are, he always remained faithful, and for the darker, like Divov, shapes soulless misoneism Kochubei always been a terrible bugbear. In some matters, such as peasants, the theoretical determination even increased Kochubei as the experience of service. However, fear of practical measures did not leave him ever. He saw the discontent of large segments of the population wanted and at the same time afraid of reform and even those expectations, which could cause any candid speech on the reform. Not daring to reform, . who wanted, . because he was afraid of them or seen them imperious opposition from the rulers, . their yard and advisers, . Kochubei increasingly immersed in the neutral area of the state economy, . Although clearly understood, . that great success is unattainable without prior extensive administrative, . social and partly political reforms,
. I think part of it is due and his stern attitude toward the Soviet legal opposition - especially Mordvinov and Lyubetskys. In 1831, Mr.. Kochubei was elevated to the princely dignity. In 1834, Mr.. and a half months before his death was made public Kochubei Chancellor of the Interior. - Sources and literature are listed in the article N. Chechulina in Russian bibliographical Dictionary ". See. also works and editions of Grand Duke Nikolai Mikhailovich, especially "Graf IA. Stroganov "and" Diplomatic relations between Russia and France ". S. Ch

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