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Krylov, Ivan Andreevich

( Famous Russian fabulist)

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Biography Krylov, Ivan Andreevich
photo Krylov, Ivan Andreevich
Born February 2, 1768, according to legend - in Moscow. His father "did not study science, he served in the cavalry regiment, in 1772. distinguished themselves in defending the town from Yaitskiy Pugachev, was chairman of the magistrates in Tver and died in 1778, leaving a widow with two small children. Ivan Krylov spent his childhood traveling with his family, learned to read and write at home (his father was an avid reader, after his son went to a box of books); French engaged in a family of wealthy acquaintances. In 1777, Mr.. it was recorded in the civil service podkantselyaristom Kalyazin Zemsky lower court, then the magistrate Tver. The service was, apparently, only nominal, and Krylov was considered likely to leave before the end of much study. Krylov studied little, but have read quite a lot. According to a contemporary, he "attended a special pleasure folk gatherings, shopping area, swings and fisticuffs, which pushed between the motley crowd, listening eagerly to the speeches of the commoners'. In late 1782, Mr.. Krylov went to St. Petersburg with his mother, who managed to identify it at the service in the Treasury in St. Petersburg. At that time enjoyed great fame "Melnik" Ablesimova under the influence of the wings wrote in 1784, the opera Kofeynitsa; story he took it from the "Painter" Novikova, but much has changed it and ended the happy ending. Krylov took his opera Breytkopfu to the bookseller, who gave it to the author of 60 books rubles (Racine, Moliere, and Boileau), but the opera is not printed; "Kofeynitsa" was published only in 1868. (in the anniversary edition). The subject of satire Krylov - not so much selling kofeynitsa as lady Novomodova); its purpose - to show that new-fashioned and "free" views on morality not exclude cruelty. In the play a lot of perfectly matched folk sayings, and, despite the inconsistency of character, it can be called a phenomenon of that time a remarkable. In 1785, Mr.. Krylov wrote the tragedy of "Cleopatra" (it does not come down to us) and brought it to view the famous actor Dmitrevsky; Dmitrevsky encouraged him to further trouble, but the play on this form is not approved. In 1786, Mr.. Krylov wrote a tragedy, "Philomela", which is nothing but an abundance of horror and howls and lack of action does not differ. Slightly better written Krylov at the same time, the comic opera "mad family" and comedy "Writer in the hallway"; than vivacity of dialogue and a few people "catchwords" in them no merit. Going into close contact with the theater committee, Krylov was gratuitous ticket order to translate from French opera: "L'Infante de Zamora" and hope that the "mad family" will go to the theater because her music has been commissioned. In the Exchequer Krylov then received 80 - 90 rubles a year, his position was not satisfied and went to the Cabinet of Her Majesty's. In 1788, Mr.. Krylov lost his mother at the hands of his left his younger brother, Lev, about which he cared for his life as a father about his son (the one in letters and called him the usual "Dad"). In 1787 - 1788 years Krylov wrote the comedy "pranksters", which brought on the scene and cruelly ridiculed the first playwright of the time YA.B. Knyazhnin (Rifmokrad) and his wife, daughter Sumarokova (Tarator), according to Grech, a pedant Tyanislov written off with a bad poet rm. Karabanov. While in the "mischievous" is not a true comedy, but dared to caricature, alive and witty, and good-natured simpleton scene Azbukina with Tyanislovom and Rifmokradom that time could be very funny. "Pranksters" not only quarreled with Krylov Knyazhnin, but also incurred the displeasure of his theatrical Directorate. In 1789, in the printing IG. Rachmaninoff, an educated man, Krylov publishes the monthly satirical magazine: "Mail of Spirits". Image shortcomings of Russian society is invested here in a fantastic form of correspondence with the gnomes magician Malikulmulkom. Satire "Mail of Spirits" and the ideas, . and the bump is a direct continuation of the journals started 1770 years (only scathing attack on the Krylov Rifmokrada and Tarator and the directorate theaters are making a new, . personal element), . but the art images noticed a major step forward,
. According YA.G. Groth, "Kozitskii, Novikov, Emin were only intelligent observers; Krylov is already emerging artist". "Mail of Spirits" came out only from January to August, as had only 80 subscribers; in 1802. She second edition. In 1790, Mr.. Krylov wrote and published an ode to making peace with Sweden, the product of a weak, but still showing the author in the future artist's words. Upon his retirement, Krylov in 1791. becomes the owner of the printing house and in January 1792, Mr.. start typing in her journal "Spectator", with a very broad program and the apparent tendency to satire, especially in the articles of the Krylov. The largest of these articles: Oriental tale "Kaibil" fairy tale "Night," "Honorable speech in memory of my grandfather," Speech, speaking rake in the collection of fools, "" Thoughts philosopher the fashion ". In these articles (especially on the first and third) shows, . as expanded worldview Krylova, . and matures as his artistic talent, at which time he was the literary center of the circle, . who engage in polemics with the "Moscow Journal" Karamzin,
. Chief Officer was Krylova AI. Klushin. "Spectator" had 170 subscribers and in 1793, Mr.. turned into "St. Petersburg Mercury, published by Krylov and Klushin. Since that time stopped "Moscow Journal" Karamzin, the editors of "Mercury" dreamed extend its publication everywhere and gave it a more literary and artistic nature. In "Mercury" placed just two satirical plays Krylov: "Honorable speech science to kill time" and "Honorable Ermolafidu speech, speaking in a meeting of young writers". Latter osmeivaya new direction in the literature (under Ermolafidom, a man who carries ermolafiyu or nonsense, meant primarily Karamzin), is an expression of the then literary views of the Krylov. This nugget of stern rebukes Karamzinians for lack of preparation, for contempt for rules and for striving for the common people (to the sandals, peasant coat and hat with the audience). Obviously, the years of his journalistic activities were for Krylov academic years, and that later scholars have made discord in his tastes, which served as the likely reason for the suspension of his literary activity. Most Krylov appears in the "Mercury" as a lyricist and mimic more simple and light-hearted poems Derzhavina, he shows more intellect and sobriety of thought, . rather than inspiration and feelings (especially in this respect is typical "Letter to the benefits of desires", . remaining, . however, . not printed),
. "Mercury" lasted only one year and not had much success. In late 1793, Mr.. Krylov left St. Petersburg, and what he was busy in 1794 - 1796 gg. We do not know. In 1797, Mr.. he met in Moscow with Prince SF. Golitsyn and went to his village, as a teacher of children, Secretary and t. n. - At least not in the role of parasite-parasite. At this time, Krylov had already broad and thorough education, well-played the violin, known in Italian and was able and useful teaching language and literature (see. Memoirs F.F. Vigel). To play at home in the house Golitsyn wrote shutotragediyu "Trumf, . or Podschipa "(first printed abroad, . then in the "Russian Antiquities" in 1871, . Book III), . rugged, . but not devoid of salt and vitality of a parody of lozhnoklassicheskuyu drama, . and through it has done away with their own desire to extract tears viewers,
. In 1801, Mr.. Golitsyn was appointed Governor-General of Riga, and Krylov determined to him secretary. In the same or the following year he wrote a play called "Pie" (published in the VI t. "Compendium of the Academy of Sciences, presented for the first time in St. Petersburg in 1802), a light comedy of intrigue, in which a person Uzhimy passing offended antipathetic author sentimentalism. Despite the friendly relations with his boss, Krylov in 1803, Mr.. newly retired. What he did next two years, we do not know, say that he was a great game of cards, has won once a very large sum, traveled to fairs. In 1805, Mr.. Krylov was in Moscow and showed I.I. Dmitriev his translation of the two fables of La Fontaine: "The oak and cane" and "intelligibility Bride. According to Lobanov, Dmitriev, reading them, Krylov said: "It's true your race, and finally, you found it". Krylov always loved La Fontaine (whom he called Fontaine) and, according to legend, already in early youth felt his hand at translating fables, and later, perhaps in their altered, fables and proverbs were then in vogue. A connoisseur of beautiful, simple language, always loving to clothe his thought in plastic form the apology, strongly inclined to ridicule and skepticism, Krylov, indeed, was created for a fable, but it is not just focused on this form of creativity. In 1806, Mr.. he published only 3 fables in 1807, Mr.. there are three of his plays, of which two, corresponding to the direction of satirical talent Krylova, have had great success on the stage: "Fashion shop" and "Lesson's Daughter" (story last freely adapted from "Precieuses ridicules" Moliere). The object of satire in both plays is the same, in 1807, Mr.. quite modern - the passion of our society to all the French, in the first comedy frantsuzomaniya associated with immorality, the second brought to the Pillars of Hercules stupidity. By vitality and strength of dialogue, both comedies represent a significant step forward, but the characters do not remain. The third piece Krylov: "Ilya Bogatyr, opera, written in the order AL. Naryshkin, the theater director (staged for the first time in 1806) despite a lot of nonsense, typical of fairy, she presents several strong satirical features and curious as a tribute to romanticism, brought this very neromanticheskim mind. It is not known to what time is unfinished (it only has half steps, and the hero has not yet appeared on the scene) Krylov comedy in verse: "Lazybones" (published in volume VI of the Compendium of the Academy of Sciences "). It is curious as an attempt to create a comedy character, and at the same time, merge it with the comedy of manners, as well as the lack depicted in it with extreme harshness, had its foundations in the lives of the Russian nobility and later epoch. Hero of Lentulus is a talented sketch that was later developed in Tentetnikov and Oblomov. Undoubtedly, . Krylov and found himself a decent dose of this weakness and, . how many true artists, . is therefore set out to portray her with a possible strength and depth, but entirely equating him with his hero, it would be grossly unfair: Krylov - strong and energetic person, . when necessary,
. The success of his plays was great; in 1807, Mr.. contemporaries put it next to Shakhovskoi (cm. Diary of an official "C. Zhikhareva) plays his repeated very often, "milliner's shop, and walked in the palace (cm. Aratsov "Annals of the Russian theater"). Despite this, Krylov decided to leave the theater and follow the advice Dmitrieva. In 1808, Mr.. Krylov, again entered the service (in the currency department), printed in the "Bulletin of the Drama" 17 fables and between them a few ( "Oracle", "The Elephant in the province," Elephant and п°п╬я│я▄п╨п╟ "etc.) is quite original. In 1809, Mr.. He publishes the first separate edition of his fables, of 23, and this little book won an honorable place in Russian literature. Since then, his life - a series of continuous successes and honors. In 1810, Mr.. he enters an assistant librarian in the Imperial Public Library, under the command of his former patron, AN. Venison, at the same time he granted a pension of 1500 rubles per year, . which later (1820), . "in respect of different talents in Russia's Literature", . doubles, . and even in later (in 1834) increased fourfold, . and he rises in rank and in positions (from 1816 g,
. He was a librarian), retirement (1841) to him, "not like the other" is assigned to the complete retirement of its contents by the library (11,700 rubles). Respected member of the "Conversations lovers of Russian literature" Krylov was since its establishment, 16 December 1811, Mr.. he was elected a member of the Academy of Russia, January 14, 1823, Mr.. received from her a gold medal for literary merit, . and the transformation of Russia Academy of the department of Russian Language and Literature of the Academy of Sciences (1841) was approved by the ordinary academician (on the legend, . Nicholas agreed to transform the condition, . "that was the first academician Krylov),
. February 2, 1838, Mr.. in St. Petersburg celebrated the 50 anniversary of his literary career with such solemnity and sincerity, that this literary triumph can not be specified before the Pushkin festival 1880. Moscow. Died Nov. 9, 1844, Mr.. Many survived anecdotes about his amazing appetite, sloppiness, laziness, love of fire, the amazing force of will, wit, popularity, evasive caution. High position in literature Krylov not reached immediately. Zhukovsky, . in his article "On the fable, and fables of Krylov", . written about the publication in 1809, . even compares it with Dmitriev, . not always to his advantage, . points out in his language of "error", . "expressions nasty taste, . gross "and with obvious hesitation" allows himself to "pick it up somewhere to Lafontaine, . as a skilled interpreter "king fabulist,
. Krylov could not be in a special claim on the sentence, . because of the 27 fables, . written by him until, . at 17 he, . really, . "borrowed from La Fontaine and fiction, . and the story "; on these translations Krylov like stuffing his hand, . honed weapon for his satire,
. Already in 1811, Mr.. He delivers a long series of quite distinct pieces (out of 18 fables in 1811, Mr.. documented borrowed only 3), often strikingly bold ( "Geese," "leaves and roots," "Quartet," The Mice "). The audience at the same time recognized in the Krylov huge and quite independent talent, his collection of "New Fables," in many homes was the favorite book, and malicious attacks Kachenovsky (Journal Europe ", 1812) is much more damaging criticism, as the poet. In the year of World War II Krylov becoming a political writer, is the direction, which kept the majority of Russian society. It is also clear political message is visible in the fables of the two subsequent years, for example, "Pike and the Cat" (1813) and "The Swan, Pike and Cancer" (1814, here expressed dissatisfaction with the Russian society of the actions of the allies of Alexander). In 1814, Mr.. Krylov wrote 24 tales, every one of the original, and has read them in the yard, in the circle of the Empress Maria Feodorovna. By calculating Galakhova, the last 25 years of Krylov's fables fell only 58, whereas in the first twelve - 140. Comparison of his manuscripts and numerous publications shows, . how extraordinary energy and attentiveness that, . in other respects, lazy and careless, . correcting people and smooths the initial sketches of his works, . already, . apparently, . very successful and deeply thoughtful,
. Most of all he sought to plasticity and the possible short, . especially at the end of the fable; moralizing, . very well conceived and executed, . he or shortened, . or even throw out (the weakened didactic element and amplified satire), . reaching, . hard work, . to acute findings, . which quickly passed into proverbs,
. He was expelled from the fables of all books turnovers and vague expressions, replaced their folk, art, and at the same time, it is accurate, correcting the building line and destroying so-called "poetic license". He achieved his goal: to force the expression, . beautiful form, . Krylov's fables - the height of perfection, but still can not convince, . if Krylov no irregular accents and awkward phrases ( "You, . nor do I go there not to climb "in the fable," two boys ", . "The fruits of ignorance are as terrible" in the fable of "infidels", etc.),
. All agree that the skill of the story, the characters in the bump, the subtle humor, the energy of the Krylov - a true artist, whose talent appears more brightly than they dissociate themselves a modest area. Fables him a whole - not dry moralizing allegory, and a true "sight of the lives of human". How edifying fable Krylov was for his contemporaries and continues to be for posterity - this opinion is not quite similar, and for the full investigation of the issue is not taken all the necessary. Although Krylov and finds a benefactor of the human race "of, . Who are the main rules of virtuous deeds offers in short terms ", . he never logged, . either in their fables was not didactic, . a bright satirist, . and, moreover, not so, . which executes a mockery shortcomings of contemporary society, . mean ideal, . firmly taken root in his soul, . a satirist-skeptic, . bad faith in the possibility to correct people and seeking only to reduce the number of lies and evil,
. When Krylov, . moralist of duty, . tries to offer "the most important rules of virtuous deeds", . He is out dry and cold (see, . example, . "Divers"), but when it presents itself to point out the contradiction between the ideal and reality, . to expose self-deception and hypocrisy, . phrase, . falsity, . dull complacency, . He is a true master,
. It is hardly appropriate to be indignant at Krylov, because he "did not express their sympathy to any discoveries, inventions and innovations (Galakhov) as inappropriate to require all his fables, sermons and spiritual nobility of humanity. He has another task - to execute a ruthless evil laugh: strikes of various types of treachery and stupidity, so mark that question the beneficial effect of his fables for a wide range of readers can not be. - An important historical and literary significance Krylov no doubt. As in the age of Catherine next to an enthusiastic Derzhavins needed a pessimist Fonvizin since the age of Alexander was necessary Krylov, acting at the same time with Karamzin and Zhukovsky, he represented his opposition. Not share the aspirations of archaeological Shishkov, Krylov knowingly joined his mug and fought all his life against half-conscious Westerners. In fables, he was the first we have "truly national" (Pushkin), writer, and in the language and images (the animals, birds, fish and even mythological figures - a truly Russian people, each with the characteristic features of the era and social status), and of ideas. He sympathized with the Russian working man, the shortcomings which, however, knows, and shows strong and clear. The good-natured ox and sheep are always offended him only so-called positive type, and fables: "The leaves and roots," "Worldly gathering," "Wolves and Sheep", raise him far ahead of the then idyllic environment defenders of serfdom. - The first monograph on Krylov written by his friends - M.E. Lobanov ( "Life and works of Ivan Andreevich Krylov", 1847) and P.A. Pletnev (when complete edition Krylov issued S. Yungmeysterom and E. Weimar in 1847); biography Pletnev many times reprinted. Notes, materials and articles about him appeared in the historical and general journals (see list of their. y Mezhov "History of Russian and universal literature", St. Petersburg., 1872, as well as in Kenevicha and L. Maikov). In the year of the centennial of Krylov out "bibliographical and historical notes to the fables of Krylov, VF. Kenevicha and II t. "History of Russian Literature" aq. Galakhova, where Krylov's fables, and his devoted a small but valuable study. Serious and honest, but not the total work Kenevicha (2 nd edition, without amendments, and even with the reductions, 1878) was included as part of the VI t. "Collection of Russian Language and Literature Academy of Sciences" (1869), all articles are devoted to Krylov; Then there were several monographs in journals. From the works of a later time, valuable material is paper LN. Maikova: "First Steps IA. Krylov in the literary field "(" Russian Messenger ", 1889, reprinted in" Historical and literary essays, "St. Petersburg., 1895). - Wed. And also the article. Liashenko in the "Historical Messenger (1894,? 11); A. Kirpichnikova in "The initiative", in. Peretz in the Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters in 1895 " and a number of articles on Krylov in the Journal of the Ministry of National Education "(1895) Amon, Draganov and Nechaev (last evoked a brochure. Liashenko). A. Kirpichnikov. Article FA. Vitberg: "The first Krylov's fable" ( "Proceedings of the II Division of the Academy of Sciences", 1900, Book 1) found that Krylov's fables first appeared not in 1806, and in 1788, in "Morning Watch". In 1904 - 1905 years appeared "The Complete Works of Krylov" in 4 volumes, edited by VV. Kallash in the publication of "Enlightenment". The editor had access to manuscripts Krylova and gave his texts in a more complete and accurate manner; edition is equipped with an extensive biographical essays, . introductory historical and literary articles to the individual works and groups of, . as well as copious notes, it is far advanced the study of Krylov, . but it was not free from the many blunders, . which were listed in the extensive, . but too picky articles L.K,
. Elias (II Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, 1905 and 1907). Later VV. Kallash continued study Krylova from manuscripts and printed sources and published many valuable materials: unpublished works of Krylov (eg, . opera "sleep potion", . translations of Plato and Plutarch), . Biographical, . literary and bibliographic data (cm,
. "Proceedings of the II Division of the Academy of Sciences, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1909. And the" Proceedings of the Society of Teachers of Moscow University ", t. II, Moscow, 1904). The outcome of decades of research should be a new edition of the works of Krylov undertaken VV. Kallash in 1914. L.K. Ilinskij also continued his study of Krylov ( "The Year of the birth Krylov" in the Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1904, "11;" comic fable Krylov "in the" Russian Antiquities ", 1904,? 3). Assumptions AN. Pypin on cooperation in the "Mail Spirits" AN. Radishcheva taken and other scientists refuted P.E. Shchegolev in his "Historical Sketch" (St. Petersburg, 1913). Much in the biographies and works of Krylov remains dark. Thus, for example, not exhausted the issue of whether the fracture was accomplished in public attitudes Krylova, and its connection with the conservative outlook of Alexander's time. - Wed. SA. Vengerov Sources dictionary of Russian writers "(t. III, 1914); A. Shalygin "Russian Biographical Dictionary" (1904); AI. Kirpichnikov "Essays on the new Russian literature" (t. I, 2 nd edition, 1903), P. Smirnovsky "History of Russian Literature of XIX century." (Issue V, 1902); VI. Pokrovsky Ivan Andreevich Krylov. Collection of historical and literary articles "(3rd edition, Moscow, 1911). N. AP

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