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Kuprin Alexander

( Talented Writer)

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Biography Kuprin Alexander
photo Kuprin Alexander
Born in August 1870. in the Penza province, on his mother comes from the kind of Tatar princes Kolonchaki. He studied in the 2 Cadet Corps and the Alexander Military School. Began to write another cadet, the first of his story: "The Last Debut" was published in 1889. in Moscow, Russian satirical Newssheet ". In 1894, Mr.. Kuprin left military service, he worked in the provincial editions, studied dental art, served in the technical office, was engaged in land surveying, was an actor, all of which subsequently reflected in his work. Early sketches Kuprina published in Kiev in two compilations: "Kyiv types" (1896) and "Miniatures" (1897), they are quite pale and shallow. The first big story, put forward Kuprina as a writer, "Moloch", was published in 1896. in "Russian. God. ", Followed him:" Night Shift "(1899), in" World of God ", and several other stories, were published in two journals. In 1901, Mr.. Kuprin settled in St. Petersburg, becoming a close associate of the World of God "and publishing" Knowledge ". This publishing house released the first two volumes of essays Kuprin (1903 and 1906). Later, the collected works of Kuprin released in Moscow, and given, in 1912, annexed to the "Cornfield" (in eight volumes). In 1914, Mr.. Kuprin - writer of the transition time. In his work impressed with the mood of "roadless" era, but not to its bleak, pessimistic generation, which is described in Chekhov, but younger. Public twilight at this time is nearing an end, but still exerted great influence on the psychology of the intelligentsia. Key person first stories Kuprina: Engineer Bobrov ( "Moloch"), Dr. Kashintsev ( "Jew") and the student Serdyukov ( "Swamp") have much in common with Chekhov's characters. This is - sensitive, conscientious, but broken-down, emotionally exhausted people, confused in reflection and Hamlet-mood. Their appalling evil of the world, they are keenly sympathize with the sufferings of others, but unable to fight. Consciousness of his own helplessness encourages them to perceive life only by its rigidity, injustice and pointlessness. However, even these reflective heroes Kuprina noticeable new feature that distinguishes them from Chekhov pessimists. They are organically love life and cling tenaciously for her. The reason they said one thing, the heart - another. When the tormented neurotic, Morphine Addict Bobrov comes to dealing with the need to commit suicide, true inner voice whispers to him that he does not. "Why pretend to ourselves?" You are too fond feeling for life, to kill themselves ... " In the student Serdyukov that love the feeling of life, so characteristic for the new generation, even more obvious. He shocked misfortunes forester and his family, . slowly dying of fever, . He keenly sympathetic to the poor and, . sleeping in their hut, . reaches hallucinations, . to nightmares and life seemed to him impossible with the existence of this kind of suffering, . atrocities and injustices of fate ..,
. But with the onset of the morning from these painful feelings with Serdyukova no trace remains. It covers an uncontrollable desire to extricate himself quickly from the ugly fog. He "suddenly eager to suffering and wanted to see the sun, and when he finally ran up the hill, he" suffocated by the tide of unspeakable joy ". Significant ending of this story sounds almost symbolically creative Kuprin, for that public strip, which it is reflected. "The mist lay heaving endless white satin at his feet, but above him shone a blue sky, whispering fragrant green boughs, and golden rays of the sun rang jubilant celebration of victory". Small sparks gradually broke out in the whole flame. Kuprin later works, especially his famous "Duel" - a real triumph of life. For intellectuals found a new perception of life and the corresponding ideology - in Nietzscheanism. Preachers of individualism in the "fight" and act Romashev, . mainly, . Nazansky, . with its extreme motto: "when I am gone, . then the whole world will perish ... "These beliefs nitssheantsy sincerely committed to the new faith, . but too weak, . to implement it,
. Kuprin good catch this discrepancy between the "cult of personality" and the slackness of its speakers. Kuprin individualistic sentiments were expressed not only in the delineation of new intellectuals, . but also in creating a number of distinctive characters in the spirit of Gorky tramps - simple, . solid, . direct, . healthy natures, . living full assurance, . intense life,
. Such, for example, athlete and athlete Buzyga in the "horse thief", which "at least what you want to beat, but really livers him, no-o ... not get away, because he has liver rooted to ribs ". In the depiction of these natural individualists, full of life and close to nature, most writers are found especially Kuprin. Here he gives rein to her tumultuous cheerfulness, amusement motley play of color, sometimes coarse, but bright, ease of postures, the continuity of motion. In this area it is particularly so unlike Kuprina of his nearest teacher - the elegiac, restrained Chekhov; felt that Kuprin grew up under a different, more clear skies. Talent Kuprina reaches its greatest prosperity in the "fight", the best of the works Kuprin. Bright bytopisatel here united in Kuprin with a psychologist and lyricist. The theme of "Duel" was so clear and the road to the author that the development of her was not required any effort, she has poured herself a. Breathtaking overall impression of the "fight" does not interfere with the distinctness of the individual pieces. Each of them is not only interesting as part of a larger whole, but in itself lives its own life. "Duel" appeared in the middle of 1905, shortly after the unfortunate for Russia the war with Japan, and therefore attracted attention, mainly for its consumer side, sharply criticized the military environment. Pictures of military life and military psychology, painted in the "fight", as it were, the illustrations to the recent military setbacks. Now, from an objective point of view, one is struck not so much this harsh criticism as the general background of. Kuprin outlined by a military environment is, however, a characteristic picture of the entire pre-revolutionary Russian life. Subject to be utilized for the unwritten novel Romashev: "the horror and boredom of military life" - could be the subject of any public of the novel of the time. Everywhere noticeable necrosis and impoverishment everywhere prevailed boredom and template. "The feeling of absurdity, confusion, obscurity of life" that oppressed Lieutenant Romasheva, it is common to all sensitive townsfolk of old Russia who have not yet overcome the ideological "roadless". The need to silence him and reproved due to "fight" the officers' laxity of manners, rudeness and rigidity of the military in relation to each other and to subordinate. And the main flaw, alcoholism, an image which we are devoted to Kuprina bright pages, was distributed not only among the military class, and throughout Russia. Officers Kuprina (as in "fight" and in the stories) are in a close spiritual affinity with his civilian heroes. This - neurotic, for which the unbearable experience of everyday reality, people with "flayed alive" as an engineer Bobrov. They are sensitive to other people's suffering, outraged cruel order of things, but it changes nothing they can do, they are destined to only "good intentions". Psychologically, to "fight" is closely related vivid story: "The River of Life". This is the final act of the intellectual drama that depicted in the works Kuprin. Small period of time separates the "river of life" from "Duel", but the public mood had come a great twist - swept a wave of liberation events. Hero Kuprina (the same kind and sympathetic, but not a viable intellectual) has not remained indifferent to it, he rushed to meet her but immediately felt that the new life he has no place. As Nazansky, it is an individualist, an admirer of the new faith - the sacred respect for his joyful, proud, free me ". And just like Nazanskogo, his individualism is quite special, Russian - altruistic, public coloring. He praises the life, but leaves it, because he considers himself unworthy of her. "At the present time, difficult and shameful, and just can not live like me ...", he wrote in his suicide letter to a friend. Optimistic attitude towards life strikingly affected by Kuprina in two areas, the high representation of love, . as the mysterious gift, . sent from only the elected (fiery speeches Nazanskogo, . tragic romance with Romasheva Shura, . hopeless love in "Garnet Bracelet"), . and its relation to nature, . as a living whole,
. The feeling of nature Kuprina is very intensive. His "description" may at first seem a bit old - too detailed and colorful, but gradually, this flexible, . thin "flamboyance" begins to capture, . because its parts - not rhetorical metaphors, . a creative spark, and they were lit from the complex, . Greedy perception of the world, . referred to by another singer, inspired land, . Maupassant, . and which is characteristic Kuprin (Emerald Dream in the story of the same name, . hunting in the story "The capercaillie),
. Foreign severity perception Kuprina meet its internal fullness and depth. Some special flair, . subconscious mind picks Kuprin concealed essence of things, . relationship of cause and effect, . fundamental principle of life and its deeper meaning, . despite the seeming randomness of individual events ( "Evening Guest", . River of Life, . Mysticism Nazanskogo in "fight"),
. In the area of artistic techniques Kuprin has contributed nothing essentially new. Only in the later stories ( "The River of Life," "The captain Rybnikov and others) had noticed some change - a clear attraction to Impressionism, to the dramatization of the story, and most of its conciseness. But in the big novel-chronicle "The Pit", where Kuprin advocates humane bytopisatelem brothels, he again returned to the old realist techniques. Without wishing to novelty in the form Kuprin deepened and have sophisticated good old. - See: A. Izmailov, "Songs of the Earth's joy" ( "Literary Olimp, Moscow, 1911) and A. Lunacharsky (Collection "Feedback life", 1906), K. Chukovskij From Chekhov to the Present "; In. Lviv-Rogachev (Collection "Fighting for Life", 1907), E. Koltonovskaya (Collection "New Life", 1910, and Journal of Europe ", 1915, # 1) H. Shapiro ( "Northern Notes", No. 12, 1914). E. Koltonovskaya.

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