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Lavrov Peter Lavrovich

( Famous writer and political activist)

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Biography Lavrov Peter Lavrovich
(1823 - 1900). He graduated from the course at the Artillery School, was a professor of mathematics, assistant editor of the Journal of the Artillery, in 1861 - 1864 years the editor coming out then, "Encyclopedic Dictionary", the unofficial editor of the "Abroad Messenger. To this period belong his works: "Essays on the issues of practical philosophy" (St. Petersburg, . 1860); "Three conversations about contemporary meaning of philosophy" (ib., . 1861), "Essay on the History of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (Issue I, . ib., . 1866; in the Sea Collection "1865 - 1866 period published more, . than in a separate edition),
. In 1866, Mr.. Lavrov was arrested and brought to court martial. Not involved in his case to Karakozovskomu not be the slightest doubt, the court found him guilty only in the composition of several revolutionary poems, . in proximity to the people of criminal direction (Chernyshevsky, . Mikhailov and others) and in the conduct of harmful ideas through the legal press,
. Lavrov was sentenced to dismissal from the service (in the rank of colonel), and link in Kadnikov, Vologda. From there he worked in "Notes of the Fatherland" and "Week"; the final they were printed in 1868 - 1869 years of its famous "Historical Letters", under the pseudonym: Mirtov (a separate edition, St. Petersburg., 1870; complete edition, St. Petersburg., 1905 ). In February, 1870. Herman Lopatin organized escape Lavrov of Kadnikova. Lavrov settled in Paris, where he survived the siege and the commune, the last time he made friends with many of the Communards, in particular with Varlen. From Paris, Lavrov went to London, where he became acquainted with Marx and Engels. He then joined the international society working. From 1873 to 1875. he published three volumes of the Zurich Non-recurrent publication "Next" (XI, 810), and in 1875 - 1877 respectively issued a two-week newspaper under the same name. The program of "Forward" was built on the recognition of two kinds of struggle: the fight against real-world view of the theological outlook, . science against religion ", . and the struggle of labor against the benefits of an idle life, . struggle for equality against a monopoly in all its forms and manifestations, . struggle against the working class, . its operating, . counter free association against compulsory state, . short - the struggle for the realization of a just social order ",
. The main class, which counted on "Forward", was, nevertheless, not working class and peasant class; Socialism journal "Forward" was entirely painted in the shade of a peasant. The magazine, edited Lavrov (except the last, 5-second volume), a body of revolutionary populism, was summed up in 1870 in the so-called "going to the people". The arrest of almost all phases of the Populist leaders of the revolutionary movement in Russia (1874 - 1875 years), . followed by a series of political processes (the so-called processes of 50 and 193-x, . 1877 - 1878), . taken a severe blow Populist direction, . especially in its practical activities,
. Influenced by events in Russia has changed and the political outlook Lavrov. At the end of 1870 Lavrov made no unconditional, several wavering supporter of the new revolutionary direction, known as the People. In 1882, Mr.. Lavrov was one of the founding in Paris of the Red Cross of the People's Freedom ", for which he was expelled from France, in 1883. was able to return to Paris, where he lived until his death. From 1883 to 1866 years, he was one of the editors of non-periodical publications: Journal of the People's Will ". In 1892 - 1896 years, Lavrov took part in the publication of materials for the history of Russian social-revolutionary movement, which placed two articles: "The history of socialism and the Russian Movement" and "populists 1873 - 1878 years". Generally Lavrov wrote very much as in the legal and illegal publications in. His pseudonyms in the legal literature: Mirtov, Shchukin, P. Kidron, P. Ugryumov, P. Kryukov P. Koshkin, P-sky, and many others. Since the late 1890's, began to appear in Russia, part of the old part of the new work Lavrov, published under various pseudonyms. So there: SS. Arnoldi, the task of understanding the history. Draft introduction to the study of the evolution of human thought, "M Edition. Kovalevsky (Moscow, 1898); Arnoldi "Modern teaching on morality and its history" (St. Petersburg, 1904); Arnoldi "I. Who owns the future. II. From 1890, the manuscripts "(St. Petersburg, . 1905); Dolenga "The most important moments in the history of thought" (M., . 1903; somewhat reduced for censorship reasons, reprinting most remarkable of the philosophical works Lavrov, . published in the "Geneva" [1894 - 1898] and left unfinished: "Experience the history of thought of modern times"); "Historical Letters" (cm,
. above); "Populists and propagandist 1873 - 1878 years" (1907) and others. Lavrov wrote in foreign languages, mostly articles about Russia. In the first volume of "Jahrbuch fur Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik" (Ludwig Richter, Zurich, 1879) it belongs to review the history of the revolutionary movement in Russia. In the "Neue Zeit" 1880. he published a biography and a description of his friend Herman Lopatin. Lavrov calls his teaching anthropology and sees elements of it Protagoras, the ancient skeptics, sensualist, Comte, and especially in Feuerbach. Philosophical thought is the idea of combining specifically theoretically creative. It derives all of its material from the knowledge, beliefs and practical reasons, but brings all these elements demand the unity and coherence. Every thought and action suggests, on the one hand, the world as it is, the law of causation linking the effects, on the other - the possibility of setting our goals and criteria for selection of enjoyable, useful, proper. But then, since both do not exist by itself, but for us, therefore, the starting point for constructing a philosophical man, checking himself in theory and practice and developing in a hostel. Anthropologism admits three healthy mature field of theoretical thinking: knowledge, freedom of conscious works of art, combining creativity critical-philosophical. Morality is not inherent in man: not all produce a moral impulses, just as not all reach of scientific thinking. Inherent in man a desire for pleasure, an educated man produces pleasure moral life and puts it to a higher level in the hierarchy of pleasures. Most of the stops on the ability of calculating benefits. The moral life begins at the elementary form of the elaboration of notions of personal dignity and the desire to put it in my life, she receives a solid foundation, . when a person is aware, . that the process of this life is inherent in the development of, . produces in himself the ability to enjoy their own development and the need to develop,
. By the very nature of this process is inseparable from his critique. A further sign of moral beliefs is a requirement of public morality, namely, to strengthen and enhance social solidarity. Hence the recognition of other persons to human dignity and the requirement to deal with them according to their dignity. All the basic concepts of ethics exhausted dignity, development, critical beliefs and justice. For human development are well defined and obligatory, as concepts of geometry. Sociology examines the manifestations, . aspirations, and weakening of solidarity between the organic conscious individuals, and therefore covers, . one hand, . All animals society, . in which individuals have developed to a certain degree of individual consciousness, . on the other - not only already existing forms of human society, . but also those social ideals, . in which a person hopes to achieve a more cohesive, . together and a more equitable hostel, . and the practical problems, . arising from the desire to implement these ideals,
. Progress Lavrov said at the same time strengthening the conscious processes in the individual and solidarity in society. The progressive movement is firmly only when the interests of the majority coincide with the beliefs of most developed minority. History, as the process is the process of development, due to positive or negative sign of the progress. History, like science, is finding the law of consistency in the development of individual consciousness and solidarity between individuals phases. Its main objective - a branch for each epoch in the field of consciousness and solidarity, the characteristic features of the experiences of the old and new states of the germinal. - See. P.N. Miliukov "P.L. Lavrov "(obituary," God's World ", 1900,? 3), C. Ansky "P.L. Lavrov "(" Russian Wealth ", 1905," 8); "Memoirs of a teacher", VG. von Bohle ( "Russian Antiquities", 1904, "9);" A Page of memories, "Lesevicha, in the book" The Post of Honor "; Zasodimsky" Site of the literary memoirs "(" Historical Journal ", 1904, No. 5);" seventieth P.L. Lavrov (old edition of the People, Geneva, 1893); Kareev "Theory of personality P.L. Lavrov "(" Historical Review ", 1901, reprinted in II T. "Collected Works" and separately), M. Negreskul (Lavrov's daughter) "Excerpts from the memoirs" (the flight P.L. Lavrov of Kadnikova, "Son of the Fatherland", 1905,? 245); Rusanov "Socialists of the West and Russia" (1908); his "P.L. Lavrov "(" Past ", 1907); Rappoport" Social Philosophy Lavrov (1905), "the process P.L. Lavrov "(" Past ", 1906); P.L. Lavrov, "On himself" (Journal Europe ", September and October, 1910); Tcheskis" La philosophie sociale de L. " (Petrograd., 1913).

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